Business Ethics*

Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
sstoer@yahoo.com

Articles & Publications ~~ Case Studies ~~ Corporate Codes of Ethics
Professional Organizations & Associations ~~ Resources & Centers
Additional Ethics Resources


Articles & Publications

Accrediting Board Endorses Stronger Focus on Ethics in Business-School Curriculums (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/01/2003010805n.htm
Have business schools done enough to raise the ethical awareness of MBA students? AACSB International: The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the accrediting agency of business schools in the U.S., does not think so and has proposed changes to make the teaching of business ethics a top priority. The proposal plus reactions to these recommendations are discussed in this article from the January 8, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Business Corporate Ethics
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/business/specials/corporateethics/
Business Corporate Ethics is a special report outlining recent corporate scandals involving ethics violations compiled by the Washington Post. Breaking news features, Enron updates, WorldCom activities, accounting probes, as well as timelines and analysis are posted.

Business Ethics Articles from George S. May International Company
http://ethics.georgesmay.com
Six very practical steps for ethical decision making in small business.

Business Ethics Forum
http://www.managementlogs.com/business_ethics.html
The focus of this blog is on business ethics, and it is designed for those "interested in promoting ethical business practices, moral behavior and responsible management in corporations and institutions." Free membership is required to participate in the discussions.

Business Ethics Newsletter
http://www.iese.edu/faculty/Etica/newsletter/
Joan Fontrodona and Roberto García Castro edit this newsletter that is affiliated with the IESE Business School at the University of Navarra (Spain). The goal of the Business Ethics Newsletter is to highlight certain stories featuring business ethics that have appeared recently in the media.

Business Ethics': Resources for Educators
http://www.business-ethics.com/For-Educators.htm
Business Ethics claims to be "the premier publication of the movement for greater social responsibility in business". The publication has been in operation for 15 years and is aimed at secondary and post-secondary level educators.

An article featured on the SocialFunds.com site discusses the top 100 companies that made the Business Ethics' Best Corporate Citizens List for 2001, and can be found at http://www.socialfunds.com/news/article.cgi/article832.html.

Business Schools Add Ethics in Wake of Corporate Scandals

http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news/hits/020816ap.htm
This Associate Press story from August 16, 2002 by Paul Singer examines the growing interest in business ethics courses by students on many college campuses. Business schools are responding to this demand by providing new ethics curriculum selections and by trying to find ways to integrate these values into current business courses.

BusinessWeek Online
http://www.businessweek.com
BusinessWeek Online allows you to search for articles dealing with ethics in business. Use their search feature to retrieve current articles covering a variety of ethical dilemmas affecting the business world including information about the Enron, Tyco and WorldCom scandals.

Chief Executive at Boeing Quits Under Criticism
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/02/business/02BOEI.html?th
The chief executive at Boeing, Philip M. Condit, announced his resignation on Monday, December 1, 2003 after much criticism and allegations of ethical violations. Harry C. Stonecipher, a former president at Boeing, was called out of retirement to take over as chief executive for the company. Details about the misconduct allegations at Boeing and what Condit's resignation means to the company are discussed in this December 2, 2003 article from The New York Times.

The Company They Kept
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/01/magazine/01RIGAS.html?8br
Seventy-nine year old John Rigas was living the American dream. The company, Adelphia Communications, was one Rigas built from the ground up to become a formidable opponent in the cable television industry. There did not seem to be anyone in Coudersport, Pennsylvania, where Adelphia is headquartered, and where Rigas and many members of his family live, that Rigas would not help. Along the way, something happened to bring this fairytale-like story to an end. This story, published in the February 1, 2004 issue of the New York Times discusses the creative accounting practices that contributed to the downfall of Adelphia, and examines ways this business "scandal" is different from some of the others, like Tyco and Enron.

Update: John J. Rigas, and his two sons, Timothy and Michael, went on trial today (2/23/04) in downtown Manhattan to fight charges of financial fraud. The article titled, "Adelphi is Next in Parade of Fraud Trials," from the February 23, 2004 edition of the New York Times discusses the latest in the Rigas case. It can be accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/23/business/23trial.html?th.

Corporate Ethics
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/ethics
This online special report featured on the program "NewsHour with Jim Lehrer" covers some of the recent scandals that have been hitting the business world. Links to stories discussing some of the corporations affected by the controversies, online forum resources and background reports dating back to 1995 are included.

Corporate Governance Best Practices 2003
http://www.thecorporatelibrary.com/default.asp
The Corporate Library, founded in 1999 by Nell Minow and Robert A. G. Monks, has developed this list of articles from sources like The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post. Articles included address corporate issues including recent scandals. Full text access to all the resources is free, but registration may be required to view selected articles.

Ethics Moves to the Head of the Class
http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news/hits/030214ct.htm
More and more business schools are trying to add an ethics component to their curriculum. This article from the February 14, 2003 issue of The Chicago Tribune takes a look at some of the things business schools, like Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management, are doing to make sure their graduates do not get tangled in scandals like those at Enron and WorldCom.

Ethics Resource Center (ERC)
http://www.ethics.org
An extensive list of articles dealing with business ethics and related issues can be found in the section, Organizational Ethics Articles: Business at http://www.ethics.org/resources/nr_oearticles.cfm?NavCat=Business.

Ex-World Com Chief is Indicted by U.S. in Securities Fraud
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/03/business/03PHON.html?th
Bernard J. Ebbers, former chief executive of World Com was charge with fraud on Tuesday, March 2, 2004. Ebbers, along with the company's chief accounting officer, Scott D. Sullivan, were indicted in one of the "biggest accounting fraud" cases in U.S. business. More details can be found in this article from the March 3, 2003 edition of the New York Times.

Financial Scandals
http://www.ex.ac.uk/~RDavies/arian/scandals
Financial Scandals is a site created by Roy Davies that covers some of the "greatest" scandals of all times. The site is divided into 8 sections and is designed for a broad audience, from business executives interested in business ethics issues to financial history enthusiasts.

Fortune.com
http://www.fortune.com
Fortune.com has numerous articles discussing ethics and ethical issues in the corporate world. Type "ethics" in the site's search feature to retrieve the latest articles.

House Committee on Energy and Commerce: Documents Related to Enron
http://energycommerce.house.gov/107/keywords/Enron.htm
The unfolding of the Enron scandal is documented by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Investigative reports and news releases are provided on the Committee's site.

Lessons from the Enron Scandal
http://www.scu.edu/Ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/nikkei.html
This is a transcript of a Q & A session between Kirk Hanson, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, and Atsushi Nakayrna, a reporter for the Japanese newspaper Nikkei. The interview occurred on March 5, 2002, and it's focus was on the Enron scandal.

Additional resources on the Enron scandal can be found at the following:

M.B.A. Students Want Programs to Put More Emphasis on Ethics, Survey Finds (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/05/2003052103n.htm
A study, released in May 2003 by the Aspen Institute, found that M.B.A. students are concerned that their schools are not doing enough to prepare them for ethical dilemmas they may face in the business world. Seventeen hundred M.B.A. students from the U.S., Canada and Britain were surveyed for this study conducted by Aspen's Business and Society Program. Results from the study plus student reactions are addressed in this article from the May 21, 203 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Napster, Inc.: A Case Study on the Ethics of Music Sharing on the Internet
http://www.scu.edu/faculty/itrs/LMU/napster_files/v3_document.htm
This "slide show" about Napster was presented by the KBLI Consulting Group, and it discusses the ethical, financial and legal aspects of the Napster case and possible solutions that may rectify the situation with the record companies.

A Question of Ethics
http://www.informationweek.com/825/ethics.htm
As companies move into the e-business arena, new ethical issues arise. This Informationweek.com article from February 19, 2001 discusses topics such as compromising customer privacy for advertising gain and trust concerns between employers and employees. Links to other e-business ethics articles can also be found at this site.

Why Be Honest if Honesty Doesn't Pay?
http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.jsp?doi=10.1225/90501
What do the Exxon Valdez accident, the Borland International ad deception case and basketball coach Rick Pitino have in common? This Harvard Business Review article discusses how sometimes honesty isn't the best policy if companies or individuals have something of value to offer.

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Case Studies

Babson Business College: Business Ethics Program
http://roger.babson.edu/ethics/index.htm
The Babson Business Ethics Program is designed to integrate ethics into businesses and business education. Numerous resources are available including the following:

Business Ethics: Case Studies
http://www.uvsc.edu/ethics/curriculum/business
The Center for the Study of Ethics at Utah Valley State College developed these business cases as part of their Ethics across the Curriculum seminar. Even though the cases in this section are somewhat generic in nature, they are designed to address personal and corporate ethics situations that could occur in any business environment.

BusinessEthics.ca
http://www.businessethics.ca
BusinessEthics.ca is a site created by Chris MacDonald, and it is one of the many EthicsWeb.ca (http://www.ethicsweb.ca) topic areas. Canadian and international resources including articles, case studies, and business ethics in the news reports are provided. A special collection entitled "Enron & Ethics" has recently been added to the site. The following are a few of the case studies available at this site.

Carnegie Mellon: Ethics Teaching Materials
http://ba.gsia.cmu.edu/ethics/teaching.htm
This site, developed by the Center for International Corporate Responsibility, provides links to the role of ethics instruction in B-school, case studies, tutorials and business scandal articles. Academic resources, membership organization information and other ethical materials are also available.

CasePlace.org
http://www.caseplace.org
CasePlace.org is a free service for business faculty and students offered by Aspen Institute's Initiative for Social Innovation through Business (Aspen ISIB). Cases and topics for discussion are posted at this site, and the cases are searchable by topic or discipline.

Case Studies: Analyses
http://businessmajors.about.com/cs/casestudies/index.htm?once=true&iam=dpile&terms=+IT++case++stud
About.com's collection of case studies is presented at this site. A few are links to sites related to business ethics or related topic areas.

E-Ethics Center
http://www.e-businessethics.com
The goal of the E-Ethics Center at Colorado State University is to "create a virtual community of organizations and individuals that share best practices in the improvement of business ethics". Much of the information found at the Center's Web site has been provided by businesses, non-profit organizations, government agencies and other academic institutions. The case studies section below is an example of the resource areas found at this site.

Ethics Case Studies: Illinois CPA Society
http://www.icpas.org/icpas/consumer/ethics-casestudies.asp
Dr. Howard A. Kanter at the DePaul School of Accountancy and the ICPAS Ethics Committee have developed and maintained the case studies found at the Illinois CPA Society Web site. The cases presented cover areas like discreditable acts, compliance with standards, accounting principles and general standards.

Ethics Case Study Detail
http://ethics.sandiego.edu/resources/cases/HomeOverview.asp
Case studies covering a wide range of ethical issues, including this one about the Atlantic Cement Company, can be found at the Ethics Update site (http://ethics.sandiego.edu/index.html). Robert F. Ladenson, Department of Philosophy at Illinois Institute of Technology, is the author of this case. Other cases authored by Ladenson include the following:

The Ford Pinto Case
http://www.law.wfu.edu/courses/Law&value-Palmiter/Papers/1999/Leggett-pinto.html
In May 1972, a Pinto stalled out on a Minnesota highway and was struck from behind at 28 m.p.h. After impact, the fuel tank burst into flames, killing the driver and severely injuring and disfiguring the passenger. Did Ford know about the flawed design, and if so, we're they guilty of murder? This study discusses the case that followed this 1972 incident. There are numerous versions of the Ford Pinto case, and this site merely presents one version of the scenario.

Gray Matters
http://college.hmco.com/business/ferrell/ethics/5e/students/gmatters
Gray Matters is an ethics game used by Lockheed Martin to discuss ethical dilemmas with their employees. Not all the answers to the game are clear-cut, and some sections only have partial answers.

IMA Ethics Center
http://www.imanet.org/content/About_IMA/EthicsCenter/ethic1.asp
IMA, the Institute of Management Accountants, is a non-profit organization of management accounting and financial management professionals that was founded in 1919. In 2002, IMA issued a challenge to its members to "uphold and reaffirm the highest standards of professional ethics". Ethical resources, including case studies, are provided by IMA.

Inc.comGuide: Case Studies in Business Ethics
http://www.inc.com/guides/growth/20806.html
Editors at Inc.com select the resources found at this site. Case studies covering ethical topics such as environmental challenges, getting involved in the community and making global connections can be found in this section of their site.

Other Inc.com guides can be found at http://www.inc.com/home/.

Institute for Global Ethics (IGE)
http://www.globalethics.org
IGE is an organization dedicated to promoting "ethical behavior in individuals, institutions, and nations through research, public discourse, and practical action". Numerous resources and articles are provided on the IGE site. The following is an example of a section of this site containing useful materials:

Institute of Business Ethics (IBE)
http://www.ibe.org.uk/
The goal of the Institute of Business Ethics (IBE) is to "encourage high standards of corporate and business behavior and the sharing of best practice." Sections of this site to note are Codes of Conduct and News/Resources. The Codes of Conduct section provide links on how to develop a code, what types of information should be included, and links to companies with codes. Latest news dealing with business ethics and links to external sites like the Caux Rountable (http://www.cauxroundtable.org/) and the Institute for Global Ethics (http://www.globalethics.org/) can be found in the News/Resources section. IBE was established in 1986 and strives to be the "leader in knowledge and practice of corporate business ethics."

Institute of Business Ethics (IBE)
http://www.open.ac.uk/business-ethics/index.htm
The development of the IBE site was a joint effort by the Open University and the Institute of Business Ethics and sponsored by the Foundation for Business Responsibilities. It is designed to be an online information center for academics and students interested in business ethics. The case study section is an example of resources found at this site.

Markkula Center for Applied Ethics
http://www.scu.edu/ethics
The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics was founded in 1986 and has grown into one of the most active university applied ethics centers in the U. S. It is based at Santa Clara University and was initially funded by an endowment by Linda and A. C. "Mike" Markkula Jr. Articles, cases, briefings and dialogue in all areas of applied ethics can be found at this online center. Case studies specifically addressing the issue of business ethics can be found at:

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Corporate Codes of Ethics

Baxter Healthcare: Working with Integrity
http://www.baxter.com/doingbusiness/customers/index.html
Baxter Healthcare works to create an environment that fosters the development of "conscientious ethically-minded people who are committed to integrity, honesty and fairness". The company's "Working with Integrity" document outlines global business practices standards, compliance issues, their bioethics policy & position statement on bioethics and other ethics resources.

BellSouth Office of Ethics and Compliance
http://www.ethics.bellsouth.com
BellSouth is a Fortune 100 company based in Atlanta, GA that provides communications services to commercial and residential customers. Their Office of Ethics and Compliance provides services available to all employees and stakeholders. Some of the resources provided on this site include corporate ethics training materials, self tests, ethics scenarios and a commitment booklet.

Boeing
http://www.boeing.com
Boeing has a long and diverse history, and ethics is a central component of the company's mission. The Ethics and Business Conduct Committee has been charged with the oversight of the ethics program at Boeing, and the following are some ethics resources available at their site.

Cadbury Schweppes: Ethical Business Practices
http://www.cadburyschweppes.com/EN/EnvironmentSociety/EthicalTrading/
A Section of the business principles that guide employees at Cadbury Schweppes addresses ethical issues. Areas covered as part of the company's ethical practices include communications, confidentiality, conflict of interest, gifts and inside information.

ChevronTexaco
http://www.chevrontexaco.com/about/chevtex_way/
The ChevronTexaco Way, the company's ethics overview, outlines the company's vision, performance, its people, values and ways of tracking success in this area.

Codes of Ethics Online Business
http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/business.html
Illinois Institute of Technology's Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions developed this online collection of codes on the Web, and it has grown out of the Center's Library of codes that resides in their vertical file. In addition to subject specific codes, like ones for business, resources for authoring a code, case studies and other information can be found at this site.

Compaq Code of Conduct
http://www.compaq.com/inside/ethics/code_conduct.html
Compaq Computer Corporation's Code of Conduct is a brief statement outlining the values the company is dedicated to upholding, which include honesty, quality, responsibility, compassion, fairness and respect.

Creating a Code of Ethics
http://www.ethicsweb.ca/codes
Chris MacDonald, PhD, Philosophy Department, St. Mary's University (Halifax, Canada) has put together this site with links to resources to assist individuals and groups in writing a code of ethics. He discusses why organizations and institutions should even have a code and provides guidance in writing one. He also provides links to essays on ethics, sample codes and contacts for ethics consultants.

MacDonald has also worked on several other ethics sites including EthicsWeb at http://www.ethicsweb.ca/.

Enron: Code of Ethics
http://www.thesmokinggun.com/enron/enron.pdf
This 62 page booklet, published in July 2000, details the values and principles subscribed to by Enron. The Code was intended to help guide Enron in "conducting the business affairs of companies in accordance with all applicable laws and in a moral and honest manner".

Hasboro, Inc: Global Business Ethics Principles
http://www.hasbro.com/pl/page.corporate_social/sec.ethics/dn/default.cfm
The goal at Hasboro is to "conduct its business at the highest ethical and business standards." Hasboro's ethics principles site addresses topics such as child labor, discrimination and compliance with applicable laws.

Hewlett-Packard (HP)
http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/ethics.html
This ethics page outlines the HP values, standards and guidelines for responsible conduct of business.

Honda of America Manufacturing: Compliance and Ethics
http://www.ohio.honda.com/Company/compliance.cfm
Honda's mission is to "observe the highest standard of legal compliance and business ethics through detection and prevention of corporate misconduct". The company's 24 page document, "Compliance and Ethics Business Practices Policy" details ethical issues affecting Honda including employee/associate relations, employee/customer interactions, legal regulations and working with confidential company information.

IBM: Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.ibm.com/investor/corpgovernance/cgbcg.phtml
IBM has created a very detailed set of guidelines designed to facilitate ethical conduct within the company. This 5 section document is broken down into several sub-categories by topic.

ITT Industries: Code of Conduct
http://www.ittfluidtechnology.com/conduct/start/
This Code is designed to help employees "understand ITT Industries' standards of ethical business practices". Antitrust, conflict of interest, computer software & e-mail and workplace violence are a few of the topic areas discussed in the Code.

Johnson & Johnson: Our Credo
http://www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/index.htm
Johnson & Johnson is not guided by a mission statement that hangs on the wall of the corporation. Instead, a one-page "Credo" guides the actions of the company. A link to the history of the "Credo" is also available.

Lockheed Martin: Corporate Ethics
http://www.lockheedmartin.com/wms/findPage.do?dsp=fec&ci=12911&sc=400
In addition to detailing the principles guiding Lockheed Martin, this Corporate Ethics site also provides links to their compliance training modules, external ethics sites and information outlining the company's Ethic Program, which is designed to help employees who have ethical issues.

Marathon Oil Corporation: Our Values
http://www.marathon.com/Our_Values/Living_Our_Values/
The goal of Marathon Oil Corporation is to create "sustainable value growth through innovative energy solutions and unique partnerships." Information on the company's "Creating Competitive Advantage Through Business Ethics" can also be found at this site.

Microsoft: Mission & Values
http://www.microsoft.com/mscorp/
Microsoft CEO, Steve Ballmer, presented the company's mission, vision and values in June 2002, and that information is provided on this site.

Motorola: Code of Business Conduct
http://www.motorola.com/code/code.html
Motorola has provided a detailed code of conduct that addresses not only the company's key beliefs and responsibilities, but also addresses guidelines for Motorolans (the name given to Motorola employees), customers, business partners, shareholders, competitors, communities and government.

Nortel Networks: Ethical Business Practices
http://www.nortel.com/corporate/community/ethics/guide.html
The Ethical Business Practices outlined by Nortel Networks addresses the core values of the company, personal values & corporate integrity, shared responsibility to uphold responsible business practices and ethical commitments.

Occidental Petroleum Corporation: Code of Business Conduct
http://www.oxy.com/PUBLICATIONS/PDF/code.pdf
This 16 page document outlines Occidental Petroleum Corporation's guidelines for administering & enforcing the Code of Business Conduct and the company's compliance requirements with applicable laws & ethical standards.

The Pampered Chef: Code of Ethics
http://www.pamperedchef.com/our_company/our_promise.html
The Pampered Chef is a member of the Direct Selling Association (DSA), and they stand behind the DSA code of ethics policy. A copy of the DSA code plus The Pampered Chef's "promise" to consumers and kitchen consultants are also outlined.

Raytheon Business Ethics & Compliance
http://www.raytheon.com/ethics/
Ethics are considered to be very important to those at Raytheon, and this Web site posted by the company's Office of Business Ethics & Compliance is designed to be a display of that commitment. Ethics booklets, standards and an ethics quick test are examples of some of the resources available at this site.

RE/MAX Apex Realty Inc.: Code of Ethics and Standards
http://www.edsamuel.com/general/ethics.shtml
The RE/MAX code addresses the company's position on issues such as duties to clients & customers, duties to the public and duties to realtors.

Rite Aid: Code of Ethics and Business Conduct
http://www.riteaid.com/company_info/images/code_of_ethics.pdf
The purpose of this 18-page code is to "reinforce and enhance Rite Aid's commitment to an ethical way of doing business." It outlines how Rite Aid puts the company's values and obligations to work. The document also addresses Rite Aid's responsibility to associates, responsibility to the corporation, competing with integrity, interacting with the government and implementing the code.

Sara Lee: Global Business Practices
http://www.saralee.com/ourcompany/globalbusinesspractices.aspx
In September 1997, Sara Lee introduced their Global Business Practices program as a way of conveying the company's values and beliefs to their employees. Over 100 Business Practice Officers currently oversee this ethics program in every unit and department operated by Sara Lee.

ServiceMaster: Code of Conduct
http://corporate.servicemaster.com/overview_conduct.asp
The ServiceMaster Code of Conduct outlines policies, values, and regulations must be followed by every employee at the company. This 33 page document addresses topics such as responsibilities in the workplace, customer relationships and conflicts of interest.

Texas Instruments: Ethics at TI
http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/citizen/ethics/index.shtml
TI published its first formal code of ethics in 1961, and it has undergone several revisions over the years to reflect changes in the realm of business. The TI site outlines the company's ethics and values, the ethics organization at TI, ethics in the global marketplace, the TI ethics "quick test" and other ethics materials that guide the actions and operations at TI.

United Technologies Corporation (UTC): Corporate Responsibility Report
http://www.utc.com/responsibility_reports/2004/index.htm
Values and compliance are the main ethical focus at United Technologies Corporation (UTC). The Corporate Responsibility Report, which is considered to be the company's fundamental document, was created in 2004 to act as a guide for their employees worldwide.

Unocal: Code of Conduct
http://www.unocal.com/ucl_code_of_conduct/index.htm
Unocal expects all their employees to uphold the "highest standards of business and personal ethics in the discharge of their assigned responsibilities." The Unocal code addresses general standards & practices, protecting company assets, e-mail & Internet compliance, conflict of interest, confidential information, political contributions and international political neutrality.

USFilter: Vision, Mission, Core Values
http://www.usfilter.com/water_center/PCOne.asp?wid=356
The terms and expectations detailed in the Code of Business Conduct for USFilter document the company's "firm commitment to professional and ethical business conduct".

Verizon: Code of Business Conduct
http://www.usfilter.com/en/About+USFilter/Corporate+Information/USFilter_Vision_Mission_Values.htm
Verizon's Code of Business Conduct is entitled "Connecting through Integrity", and it is a 72 page document designed to help employees make ethical decisions during their employment with Verizon. Employees are expected to follow the guidelines addressed in this document as a condition of employment.

Weyerhaeuser: Business Conduct
http://www.weyerhaeuser.com/citizenship/businessconduct/
Weyerhaeuser is one of the largest owners and producers of softwood and hardwood lumber and lumber products in the world. The company has a "reputation for conducting business honestly and with integrity", and they expect the highest level of ethical and professional conduct from their employees. All employees receive copies of Weyerhaeuser's Code of Ethics and Business Conduct document, plus they must attend ethics training on a regular basis.

Williams-Sonoma, Inc.: Corporate Values
http://www.williams-sonomainc.com/car/car_val.cfm
This brief overview outlines the values that Williams-Sonoma strives to uphold in order to help the company succeed in "enhancing the quality of life at home." The company's commitment to its people, customers, quality, shareholders and ethical sourcing are addressed.

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Professional Organizations & Associations

American Finance Association (AFA)
http://www.afajof.org/default.shtml
Initial planning for the organization that is now AFA began in December 1939 in Philadelphia, PA. AFA is a professional association that deals with financial economic issues and promotes knowledge related to this area.

Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)
http://www.aimr.com/
AIMR was formed in January 1990 as the result of a merger between the Financial Analysts Federation (FAF) and the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts (ICFA). The group has over 50,000 members in over 100 countries, and AIMR expects members to uphold the highest ethical standards in their professional behavior. AIMR offers the following 3 services to its members: 1) Education through seminars and publications; 2) Professional Conduct and Ethics; and 3) Standards of Practice and Advocacy.

Better Business Bureau (BBB): Promoting Fairness and Integrity in the Marketplace
http://www.bbb.org
In 1912, the very first BBB was founded, and today, this system is supported by 250,000 local business members throughout the world. The goal of the Better Business Bureau is to "promote and foster the highest ethical relationship between businesses and the public through voluntary self-regulation, consumer and business education, and service excellence".

Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)
http://www.bsr.org
BSR, a global, non-profit organization works to "create a just and sustainable world by working with companies to promote more responsible business practices, innovation and collaboration". They strive to help members be successful and operate successful businesses while upholding the highest ethical standards of professional behavior. Links to free reports on a variety of issues plus other resources are available at this site.

The Caux Roundtable
http://www.cauxroundtable.org/
The Caux Roundtable is an organization comprised of senior business leaders from around the world, including Europe, Japan and North America. These leaders are individuals who "believe that business has a crucial role in developing and promoting equitable solutions to key global issues". One document provided on this site that serves as a guide to all businesses interested in responsible conduct is "The Principles for Business".

The Center for Ethics, Capital Markets and Political Economy
http://www.iath.virginia.edu/cecmpe/
This Center is a non-profit organization that was established in 1994. It is designed to be an arena to foster discussion and a resource center for ethics information for "persons who believe that moral concerns should be taken into account in economic and political thinking". Services provided by the Center include sponsoring a working paper series, offering seminars, publishing "Ethics behind the News" and providing other research materials.

CorpWatch: Holding Companies Accountable
http://www.corpwatch.org/
CorpWatch, formerly known as an organization called TRAC-Transnational Resource & Action Center, is a site that keeps and eye on corporations expanding into global markets and provides resources on these issues. The organization's mission is to "counter corporate-led globalization through education and activism. We work to foster democratic control over corporations by building grassroots globalization--a diverse movement for human rights, labor rights and environmental justice".

Council for Ethics in Economics
http://www.businessethics.org
A controversy in the late 1970's between the Ross Division of Abbott Laboratories (Columbus, OH) and Nestlé led to the eventual development of the Council for Ethics in Economics. The respectful discussions with business, educational and religious leaders in the Columbus area that followed the onset of this issue highlighted the need for an association that emphasized the integration of ethics into the business and economics arena. The Council for Ethics in Economics was formed in response to that need.

The Defense Industry Initiative (DII) Business Ethics and Conduct
http://www.dii.org/
DII is a "consortium of U.S. defense industry contractors which subscribes to a set of principles for achieving high standards of business ethics and conduct." Links to ethics training resources plus other resources of interest can be found at this site.

Ethics Officer Association (EOA)
http://www.eoa.org
EOA was founded in 1992 and currently has over 800 members including the ethics officers from over half of the Fortune 100 companies. Resources available on the site include the 2000 EOA Member Survey, educational centers, government related organizations and links to ethics programs for companies like Honda, Sara Lee and Lockheed Martin.

European Business Ethics Network (EBEN)
http://www.eben.org
The formation of EBEN, a non-profit organization founded in Brussels in 1987, was considered to be a significant step in recognizing business ethics as an important area of research. Links to ethics organizations, university programs and other research institutions are provided.

Financial Executives International (FEI): Code of Ethics
http://www.fei.org/about/ethics.cfm
FEI was founded in 1931 and is considered to be the "professional association of choice for corporate financial executives". This organization strongly encourages all its members to practice the highest level of professional and ethical conduct.

Financial Planning Association (FPA): Code of Ethics
http://www.fpanet.org/member/about/principles/Ethics.cfm
Seven principles make up the Code of Ethics for FPA, and they are designed to guide members in the practice of professional ethics in the field of financial planning. The formation of FPA came about on January 1, 2000 as the result of the merger of the International Association for Financial Planning (IAFP) and the Institute of Certified Financial Planners (ICFP).

Georgetown Business Ethics Institute
http://faculty.msb.edu/prog/gbei/
Georgetown Business Ethics Institute is located at the McDonough School of Business (MSB) at Georgetown University, and they work to "foster the creation and dissemination of significant conceptual, empirical and applied knowledge in business." The section, Business Ethics Resource Center, includes links to ethics research centers, ethics organizations and selected university programs. Citations to books and industry specific materials are also provided.

Institute for Business, Technology & Ethics (IBTE)
http://www.ethix.org
IBTE was founded in 1998 to study the connections and relationships between business, ethics and technology. The mission of this organization is to "promote good business through appropriate technology and sound ethics". Sections of the IBTE Web site to note are the Tools for Better Business and the Ethics Forum.

Institute for Global Ethics (IGE)
http://www.globalethics.org
IGE is an organization dedicated to promoting "ethical behavior in individuals, institutions, and nations through research, public discourse, and practical action". Numerous resources and articles are provided on the IGE site. The following are examples of sections containing useful materials.

Institute of Business Ethics (IBE): Code of Ethics
http://www.ibe.org.uk/code.htm
IBE believes that companies should uphold the highest standards of behavior and professional conduct. This organization "broadcasts" their mission through conferences, consultations, publications and business ethics training programs. The IBE code of ethics section of the Web site goes beyond stating their code. They also provide tips on how to make codes effective, information on content included in a code of ethics policy and links to various company codes of ethics.

International Business Ethics Institute (IBEI)
http://www.business-ethics.org
IBEI is a private, non-profit organization that was founded in response to the growing demand for business ethics programs and resources. This organization focuses on the following two areas: 1) increase public awareness and dialogue about international business ethics issues; and 2) assist companies in establishing effective ethics programs in their own organizations.

National Association of Insurance & Financial Advisors (NAIFA): Code of Ethics
http://www.naifa.org/about/ethics.cfm
NAIFA is a national, non-profit organization that was founded in 1890 as the National Association of Life Underwriters (NALU). It is the oldest and largest organization in the insurance and finance fields. Their Code of Ethics outlines the ethical duty members have to clients, to the company and to the profession.

The Netcheck Commerce Bureau
http://www.netcheck.com
Netcheck was established in 1995 to "promote ethical practices worldwide and to increase consumer and corporate confidence in purchasing products and services on-line on the Internet". It was one of the first alternatives to the Better Business Bureau. This service is designed for consumers as well as online businesses.

The Society for Business Ethics (SBE)
http://www.societyforbusinessethics.org
SBE was founded in 1980 and is an international organization dedicated to the academic study of business ethics. The Ethics Links section of their site provides access to other associations and resource centers.

The Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics
http://www.corporatecompliance.org/index.htm
The Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics (SCCE) is a non-profit organization that "exists to champion compliance standards, corporate governance and ethical practice in the business community and to provide the necessary resources for compliance and ethics professionals and others who share these principles." Membership opportunities and information about SCCE events are listed on this site. Resources, such as newsletters, books, and training kits (some for fee) are also available.

UN Global Compact
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/
The Global Compact was first proposed at the World Economic Forum on January 1999, and it is based on 9 principles taken from The Universal Declaration on Human Rights, The International Labour Organization's (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Businesses are encouraged to join the Global Compact in order to become good corporate neighbors in this global environment.

U. S. Office on Government Ethics (OGE)
http://www.usoge.gov/index.html
In 1978, the Office on Government Ethics (OGE) was established as the result of the Ethics in Government Act. It is an agency within the Executive Branch, and it acts to prevent and resolve conflicts of interest situations that may occur with government employees. Some of the resources found on the OGE site include ethics documents & publications, computer & Web-based training modules, laws & regulations and international resources.

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Resources & Centers

Babson Business College: Business Ethics Program
http://roger.babson.edu/ethics/index.htm
The Babson Business Ethics Program is designed to integrate ethics into business and business education. Numerous resources are available including the following:

BELL: The Business Ethics Links Library
http://libnet.colorado.edu/Bell/frontpage.htm
Gene Hayworth, University of Colorado at Boulder, has created and continues to maintain site designed to be a starting point for those seeking information regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility. Visitors to the site may select a topic or enter a search term. The following four categories are also available:

  1. Academic organizations;
  2. Ethics organizations;
  3. Online ethics sources; and
  4. Online ethics publications.

Business Ethics
http://bubl.ac.uk/link/b/businessethics.htm
BUBL Link is a mega "catalog" of Internet resources covering various academic subject areas. An extensive section on business ethics has been compiled at this site. Resources include applied business materials, articles about financial scandals and centers of research for business ethics.

BusinessEthics.ca -- Your Canadian Resource for Business Ethics
http://www.businessethics.ca
BusinessEthics.ca is a site created by Chris MacDonald, and it is one of the many EthicsWeb.ca (http://www.ethicsweb.ca) topic areas. Canadian and international resources including articles, case studies, and business ethics in the news reports are provided. A special collection entitled "Enron & Ethics" has recently been added to the site.

Center for Business Ethics (CBE)
http://ecampus.bentley.edu/dept/cbe
The Center for Business Ethics (CBE) is housed on the campus of Bentley College and has been in operation since 1976 under the direction of W. Michael Hoffman. CBE is designed to be a forum for business ethics, and it provides specialized training and educational programs for businesses and their employees. Since CBE's founding, it has sponsored 10 major conferences on the topic of ethical business conduct.

Center for Ethics and Business
http://www.ethicsandbusiness.org/indexlo.htm
Loyola Marymount University (Los Angeles, CA) is the home of the Center for Ethics and Business. The Center acts as a forum for discussing ethical business decisions and dilemmas, including the costs and rewards of operating ethically. Numerous links to ethics programs, centers and other tools designed to help people deal with ethical dilemmas are presented.

Center for Integrity in Business
http://www.spu.edu/depts/sbe/cib/
Business ethics scandals making the news lately have increased the demand for business ethics educational programs and other programs designed to develop ethical business leaders. The Center for Integrity in Business at the School of Business & Economics at Seattle Pacific University has outlined 4 services: 1) instigating and facilitating an on-going dialogue; 2) initiating and supporting a stream of empirical research; 3) designing and conducting leadership development workshops and executive coaching sessions; 4) educating and informing a broader audience. Resources available at this site include articles on current issues, instructional resources and links to other ethics centers.

Centre for Applied Ethics (CAE)
http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/
The Centre for Applied Ethics was created in 1993 by the University of British Columbia's Board of Governors as an interdisciplinary research center. CAE's goal is to advance research in the area of applied ethics, and their site provides resources in numerous areas including business.

Complete Guide to Ethics Management
http://www.mapnp.org/library/ethics/ethxgde.htm
Carter McNamara, a business consultant in the Minneapolis/St. Paul region, has developed this free guidebook to help leaders and managers deal with the ethical issues that occur in everyday situations. The resources outlined in this online "book" include 10 myths about business ethics, ethics tools and guidelines for managing ethics in the workplace.

E-Ethics Center
http://www.e-businessethics.com
The goal of the E-Ethics Center at Colorado State University is to "create a virtual community of organizations and individuals that share best practices in the improvement of business ethics". Much of the information found at the Center's Web site has been provided by businesses, non-profit organizations, government agencies and other academic institutions. The case studies and ethics links sections listed below are merely two of the resource areas at this site.

Emerson Center for Business Ethics
http://ecbe.slu.edu/index.html
The Emerson Center for Business Ethics is a joint effort between the John Cook School of Business and the College of Arts & Science at St. Louis University (St. Louis, MO). Thanks to funding by the Emerson Corporation, the Center was formed in the early 1990s. The mission of the Center is to "improve the practice of business by engaging in dialogue, teaching and research to advance the application of ethical perspectives to business decision-making".

Ethical Business: The Search for Research
http://nt1.ids.ac.uk/eldis/hot/ethicsguide2.htm
This ELDIS (Electronic Development and Environmental Information System) guide provides links to case studies, social & environmental standards, resources for informing shareholders & consumers and more.

The Ethics Classroom
http://www.ethicsclassroom.info
The Ethics Classroom at Kansas State University (KSU) is designed to act as an "interactive forum" for local business leaders & government officials and to be a resource for KSU students taking ethics-related courses. This online classroom provides links to case studies, Internet resources and ethic poll results.

Ethics on the World Wide Web: Business
http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/ethics/business.html
Ethics on the World Wide Web is a site designed by the School of Communications at California State University, Fullerton. The annotated list includes links to ethics centers, institutes and organizations.

Ethics Resource Center (ERC)
http://www.ethics.org
ERC, the Ethics Resource Center, is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D. C. that works towards building an "ethical world". The mission of the ERC is to be a "catalyst in fostering ethical practices in individuals and institutions". The Center's Ethics Toolkit has resources such as "Why Have a Code of Conducts?", "Ethics Effectiveness Quick Test" and "Common Ethics Code Provisions".

Their National Business Ethics Survey 2000 was a telephone survey of 1,500 employees that asked about formal and information ethics programs and practices in their own organizations. The results of the survey can be found at http://www.ethics.org/2000survey.html.

Georgetown Business Ethics Institute
http://www.msb.edu/prog/gbei/index.htm
Georgetown Business Ethics Institute is located at the McDonough School of Business (MSB) at Georgetown University, and they work to "foster the creation and dissemination of significant conceptual, empirical and applied knowledge in business." The section, Business Ethics Resource Center, includes links to ethics research centers, ethics organizations and selected university programs. Citations to books and industry specific materials are also provided.

Google Directory: Business Ethics
http://directory.google.com/Top/Business/Management/Ethics/
Google Directory offers a rather large, annotated compilation of links to sites related to business ethics.

IMA Ethics Center
http://www.imanet.org/about_ethics.asp
IMA, the Institute of Management Accountants, is a non-profit organization of management accounting and financial management professionals that was founded in 1919. In 2002, IMA issued a challenge to its members to "uphold and reaffirm the highest standards of professional ethics". Ethical resources provided by IMA include the following:

Institute of Business Ethics (IBE)
http://www.ibe.org.uk/
The development of the IBE site was a joint effort by the Open University and the Institute of Business Ethics and sponsored by the Foundation for Business Responsibilities. It is designed to be an online information center for academics and students interested in business ethics. The following case study section is an example of resources found at this site.

Investor Responsibility Research Center (IRRC)
http://www.irrc.org/
IRRC was founded in 1972 and is considered to be the "world's leading source of impartial, independent research on corporate governance, proxy voting and corporate responsibility issues". Their site provides links to industry news, news releases, events plus other resources. Services are also divided by client categories such as Corporations, Investment Banks, Investment Managers and Law Firms.

Markkula Center for Applied Ethics
http://www.scu.edu/ethics
The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics was founded in 1986 and has grown into one of the most active university applied ethics centers in the U. S. It is based at Santa Clara University and was initially funded by an endowment by Linda and A. C. "Mike" Markkula Jr. Articles, cases, briefings and dialogue in all areas of applied ethics can be found at this online center. Resources specifically addressing the issue of business ethics, such as the case study section, can be found at:

Online Ethics Center: Ethics in Business
http://onlineethics.org/topics/business.html
The Online Ethics Center was established in the fall of 1995 under a grant from NSF, and its mission is to provide resources "useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise" in the work environment. The Ethics in Business section addresses several issues such as ethics in a corporate setting, conflict of interest, intellectual property and employees who are entrepreneurs on corporate time.

Other sections of the Online Ethics Center site dealing with ethical issues in business can be found at the following:

Open Directory: Business Management Ethics
http://dmoz.org/Business/Management/Ethics
Open Directory claims to be the "largest, most comprehensive human-edited directory on the Web". This annotated collection includes links to business ethics publications, resource centers, forums, codes of ethics and more.

Prudential Business Ethics Center
http://www.pruethics.rutgers.edu/
The Prudential Business Ethics Center is housed at Rutgers University, and it is focused on the theory and practice of ethical behavior in business. The mission of the Center is to "help create social capital as well as prosperity for the business and professional communities of New Jersey". Services offered by the Center include providing speakers, supporting ethics courses and publications, conducting case competitions for students, providing consulting services to area businesses and surveying the ethical attitudes of those in the New Jersey business community.

SOSIG: Professional and Business Ethics
http://www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subject-listing/World-cat/proethic.html
SOSIG, the Social Science Information Gateway, is part of the UK Resource Discovery Network. The goal of this gateway is to provide high quality business and other social science resources to students, faculty and researchers. An extensive array of resources is arranged by type of resources for easier access.

US Crony Capitalism? Corporate Scandals and Reform
http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/asia/cur_policy/scandals.html
Nouriel Roubini, an associate professor of economics and international business at New York University's Stern School of Business, has compiled a number of resources dealing with recent scandals that have plagued the business community and measures that are being carried out to prevent similar events from taking place in the future. Roubini has divided the sight into categories such as news, basic reading, academic research and opinion & editorials.

What You Need to Know About Corporate Scandals
http://uspolitics.about.com/library/weekly/aa080502a.htm
John Aravosis, a political consultant and freelance journalist in Washington D. C., has put together this About.com page to help people understand the recent scandals that have affected some major U. S. corporations. Scandals discussed include Anderson & Enron, WorldCom, America Online and Martha Stewart. Additional links for each are also provided.

Aravosis has also put together a site, The Growing Enron Scandal, that dives deeper into the problems affecting that particular company. The site can be found at http://uspolitics.about.com/cs/enrongate/index.htm.

Yahoo! Directory: Business Ethics and Responsibility
http://dir.yahoo.com/Business_and_Economy/Ethics_and_Responsibility/
This Yahoo! category has site listings for centers, institutes and publications. Their Categories section has links to related topics such as corporate accountability, socially responsible investing, sweatshops and whistleblowing.

The Zicklin Center for Business Ethics Research
http://www.zicklincenter.org
The Carol and Lawrence Zicklin Center at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, was established in 1997 to conduct leading edge research on business ethics. Research focus areas include global business ethics, corporate governance, social contracts, deception, disclosure, bribery and corruption. The Research Links section of the site includes information on associations, publications and other ethics-related materials.

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Additional ethics resources can be found at the following sites.

Anthropology Ethics

Art Ethics

Bioethics. See also the Biotechnology Web Page (UIUC)

Ethics Case Studies

History Ethics

Journalism

Plagiarism

Research Ethics

Social Science Ethics: A Bibliography

Sociology Ethics

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*This site is an adaptation of Web pages I created for the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Created by Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
©October 12, 2002
Updated June 7, 2006