Research Ethics*

Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
sstoer@yahoo.com


Articles ~~ Case Studies ~~ Policies & Guidelines ~~ Resources & Centers

Subject Specific Ethics Resources


Articles

2 Advisory Panels Suggest Improved Oversight of Research Involving Children (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/03/2004033001n.htm
More and more research is being conducted on children, especially in the areas of drugs and other therapies. Reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Institute of Medicine state that improvements need to be made in the oversight process that regulates this type of research. This article from the March 30, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the increase in research involving children, and outlines the suggestions made by these advisory bodies.

A copy of the report from the Institute of Medicine can be accessed at http://www.nationalacademies.org/.

2 Professors are Indicted over Use of Bacteria in an Art Project (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/06/2004063001n.htm
Steven J. Kurtz, an art professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and Robert Ferrell, the chairman of the human-genetics department in Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health, have been charged with "violating federal laws against mail and wire fraud." The materials that Kurtz obtained from Ferrell were going to be used in an exhibit on the politics of biotechnology in food that was to be displayed at the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art. Details surrounding this case can be found in this article from the June 30, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Additional information on this case can be found in the July 1, 2004 issue of the Scientist. It can be accessed at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040701/04/.

UPDATE (7/8/04): Steven Kurtz was arraigned in federal court in Buffalo on July 8, 2004. Kurtz was indicted on four different counts, and he could receive up to 20 years in prison plus a $250,000 fine for each charge. Robert Ferrell faces the same charges but will be arraigned at a later date. This article titled, "Prof to Be Arraigned Today," can be accessed in the July 8, 2004 issue of the Scientist at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040708/03/.

UPDATE (7/9/04): Additional details about the July 8, 2004 arraignment of Steven Kurtz on July 8, 2004 can be found in the July 9, 2004 issue of the Scientist. "Kurtz Pleads Not Guilty" can be accessed at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040709/04/.

2 Students Arrested for Alleged High Tech Cheating on GRE
http://chronicle.com/free/2002/11/2002112102t.htm
Two Columbia University students were arrested and charged with third-degree burglary and unlawful duplication of computer material after attempting to get an edge on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). This November 21, 2002 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the high tech methods the two allegedly used to carry out their scheme and how they got caught.

2 Transsexual Women Say Professor Didn't Tell Them They Were Research Subjects (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/07/2003071703n.htm
Two transexual women who are featured in a book by J. Michael Bailey, chairman of the psychology department at Northwestern University, filed complaints with the university and claim that Bailey did not obtain their "consent as participants." The book, "The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism" contains numerous interviews with and several stories about transsexual women, but these women say they were never aware that they were Bailey's research subjects. This July 17, 2003 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses reactions to Bailey's book by subjects who were interviewed for it, Bailey's reaction to the charges, and concerns voiced by scholars about institutional review board regulations regarding social science research.

Additional details about this case can be found in the following from the Chicago Tribune.

NOTE: An update on this case can be found in an article titled, "Northwestern U. Psychologist Is Accused of Having Sex with Research Subject." This article can be found in the December 12, 2003 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2003/12/2003121204n.htm.

UPDATE (12/1/04): Northwestern University has completed its investigation into this case against J. Michael Bailey but has indicated that the findings will not be released. No word at this time as to whether or not this psychology professor will be reprimanded, and Bailey has not been available for comment. An update on this case can be found in "Northwestern U. Concludes Investigation of Sex Researcher but Keeps Results Secret," which appears in the December 1, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

2 UCLA Employees are Accused of Selling Corpses That Were Donated for Research (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/03/2004030803n.htm
Henry Reid, director of the University of California at Los Angeles' (UCLA) "Willed Body Program" was arrested for selling corpses and body parts for personal profit. UCLA police are investigating whether Reid and another unidentified employee altered records and documents to mask the fact that they were inappropriately selling the donated bodies. Details about the allegations and information about the Willed Body Program are discussed in this March 8, 2004 Chronicle of Higher Education article.

UPDATE (3/11/04): UCLA suspended its Willed Body Program on Tuesday, March 9, 2004. Additional details can be found in this article from the March 11, 2004 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education. The article can be accessed at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/03/2004031103n.htm.

Academic Integrity
http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/AcademicIntegrity/Index.html
University of San Diego resources, including Lawrence Hinman's presentation, "Virtual Virtue: Academic Integrity and the World Wide Web" can be found at this site. Some of the issues covered include dealing with the development of computing, approaches to academic integrity, plagiarism & honesty, and reshaping the educational process.

Agriculture Department Cites U. of California at San Francisco for Poor Care of Lab Animals (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/09/2004092702n.htm
On August 31, 2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture filed a complaint against the University of California at San Francisco for repeated violations against the use of animals in research. The complaint outlines 61 violations, but the university insists that they have corrected the problems. This article from the September 27, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education examines the allegations and takes a look at what this could mean for the university.

Alleged Fraud Cover-Up Revealed
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030303/04/
A virulent strain of pig pneumonia that was reported stolen in September 2002 from a Michigan State University laboratory never existed. Investigators have determined that the theft of the dangerous mutant strain of pig bacteria was faked in order to hide the misuse of $750,000 in research funds. The details of this research fraud case plus Michigan State University's reaction to the findings are discussed in this article from the March 3, 2003 issue of The Scientist.

Are More People Cheating?
http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20F1FFF3E580C778CDDA90994DB404482
Recent controversies, such as the looting accusations against the former chairman of Tyco and the Stephen Ambrose plagiarism case, have many thinking that people are more dishonest than in the past. Historians and ethicists say that this may not actually be the case. This article from the October 4, 2003 edition of The New York Times takes a look at a new book by David Callahan titled, "The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead" (Harcourt, 2004), and explores explanations as to why unethical behavior appears to be on the rampage.

Balancing Business and Science and ImClone
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/dec/prof_021209.html
John Mendelsohn, president of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and developer of C225 (Erbitux) was called before members of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to answer questions about his role in ImClone Systems. The focus of the inquiry was in regard to the clinical trials that led to the FDA issuing a "refuse to file" letter for Erbitux, an act which caused ImClone's stock to plunge. Is it possible for biomedical investigators to balance the pursuit of profits with the quest for honest science? Did Mendelsohn's financial stock in the drug cause a conflict of interest? This December 9, 2002 article from The Scientist discusses this issue and attempts to provide answers to those types of questions.

Before Teaching Ethics, Stop Kidding Yourself (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v50/i24/24b00501.htm
Gordon Marino, a professor of philosophy and director of the Hong Kierkegaard Library at Saint Olaf College, discusses the current popularity of ethics instruction, and the number of individuals interested in teaching this particular topic. Marino examines what makes someone an ethics "expert," and he outlines points that people should think about before teaching ethics. Examples of moral dilemmas can also be found in this February 20, 2004 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results
http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~maccoun/MacCoun_AnnualReview98.pdf
Robert J. MacCoun discusses attempts made to use science to study science and the biases that are associated with this type of research. He explores the biases that are common in scientific research, and poses possible solutions to reduce these biases.

The Brain Revolution and Ethics (free registration may be required to access)
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/oct/opin_021028.html
Is it ethically wrong to alter the brain in order to make it function better? Are aspects of the brain revolution that lead to the enhancement of the mind creating more inequity between the haves and the have nots? This article published in the October 28, 2002 issue of The Scientist explores the ethical aspects surrounding brain alterations.

British Researchers Used Thousands of Brains Without Relatives' Consent, Inquiry Finds (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/05/2003051405n.htm
A 395-page report produced by Britain's inspector of anatomy, Jeremy Metters, documents the findings of an investigation into the unethical collection and use of more than 21,000 human brains, often without proper consent. The British government inquiry began when a letter indicated that a suicide victim's brain was retained for research at the University of Manchester. The widow, who had not given consent, confronted university officials about this practice that violated her religious beliefs. Additional findings, as well as university reaction are presented in this article from the May 14, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

The following article from the May 16, 2003 issue of the Scientist discusses concerns that stem from the controversy in England surrounding brains donated to science without consent.

Celebrity Ethics
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/dec/prof3_031201.html
Neutral ethics experts, like Art Caplan, are finding themselves in high demand by the media. These individuals are often called upon by news outlets, including CNN and Time magazine, to provide ethical pronouncements on current topics such as life support technology in the case of Terri Schaivo in Florida. This article from the December 1, 2003 issue of The Scientist discusses the implications associated with ethicists moving into the "public eye" and addresses the impact their celebrity status may have on the future of research.

College Presidents Received $300 Gifts for Attending a Software Vendor's Dinner (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/02/2004020204n.htm
Jenzabar, a software company that produces products designed for the higher education market, distributed cash gift cards worth $300 to 45 college presidents. The cards were handed out at a dinner sponsored by Jenzabar on January 5, 2004, and the company states that this act was just business as usual. A response from Jenzabar officials, plus reactions from those who consider this practice to be unethical are presented in this Chronicle of Higher Education article from February 2, 2004.

Conflict Probe Expands to FDA
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040519/03/
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have been in the spotlight for their investigation of potential conflicts of interest. Now the focus expands a bit to include the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Employee agreements with corporate entities that will be affected, plus reaction to this move are examined in this May 19, 2004 article that appears in the Scientist.

Crossing the Line (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/weekly/v49/i09/09a00801.htm
Is it acceptable for an anthropologist studying heroin use to use Federal grant funds to purchase and use the illegal drug in order to understand his subjects? This article that appeared in the October 25, 2002 issues of The Chronicle of Higher Education examines what happened when Ansley Hamid, a professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice (NY) was accused of misusing funds and drugs.

Department of Health and Human Services Publishes Final Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/05/2004051303n.htm
On Wednesday, May 12, 2004, the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services released the final version of its conflicts of interest guidelines. This document contains a few minor changes from the version released for comment in March 2003. What these rules mean for institutions and researchers is discussed in the May 13, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Doctors Endorse Research Cloning: Larges U.S. Medical Group Finds Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Be Ethical
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030620/03/
The American Medical Association (AMA) has voiced their support in favor of cloning and stem cell technology for research purposes. Members of the AMA ethics panel met during the week of June 17, 2003, and accepted without dissent the item that included the statement that the "use of human embryonic stem cells (HESC) in medical research is permissible, including 'therapeutic cloning.'" Details about this decision plus other findings are outlined in this article from the June 20, 2003 issue of The Scientist.

The Emperor's New Science: French TV Stars Rock the World of Theoretical Physics (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/weekly/v49/i12/12a01601.htm
Were the 3 articles written by a pair of French twin brothers and published in physics journals merely a string of nonsensical terms that slipped through the cracks of a peer-review process? This November 15, 2002 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the research being conducted by Igor and Grichka Bogdanov, and provides arguments as to whether they are involved in a hoax or just non-mainstream, eclectic research that is new to the field.

Engineers Consider Ethics
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20031016/06/
Along with new and innovative advances also come quandaries that may place researchers in completely uncharted waters. This has recently become the case for engineers involved in nanotechnology and neurotechnology initiatives. Background information regarding the microethical issues that have been tackled in the past, plus how macroethical dilemmas are being addressed by fields like engineering are discussed in this article from the October 16, 2003 issue of the Scientist.

Ethical Issues in Physics Workshop
http://www.physics.emich.edu/mthomsen/ethtaboc.htm
Papers presented on scientific ethics at the Ethical Issues in Physics Workshop can be found at this site. Examples of the types of subjects covered at the workshop include the following two papers.

The Ethics of Collecting and Processing Data and Publishing Results of Scientific Research
http://www.unmc.edu/ethics/data/data_int.htm

Cases of scientific fraud have been making the headlines recently, and these incidents have a detrimental effect on public attitudes toward science and scientific funding. Michael D. Mann, PhD in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics at the University of Nebraska Medical Center discusses unethical behavior in science and stresses the importance of teaching students about proper conduct while they are students. Mann also provides links to the following resources:

The Ethics of Scientific Research--A Guidebook for Course Development
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~ethics/archives/Stern_Elliott.pdf
Judy Stern and Deni Elliott at the Institute for the Study of Applied and Professional Ethics at Dartmouth College believe that sometimes even the best intentions can lead to unethical decisions. This guidebook is designed to provide an outline to those who are trying to integrate ethics into their curriculum. The program Stern and Elliott propose is intended to provide students with the skills needed to see ethical dilemmas from a new viewpoint.

Ethics, Preferred Practices and the Professoriate
http://de.comdis.wisc.edu/users/mchial/Chial/InstDevSite/ethics.htm
Michael Chial, Professor of Communicative Disorders at the University of Wisconsin-Madison outlines ethical principles faculty should uphold in dealing with undergraduate and graduate students.

Ethics, Public Education at SfN
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20031113/07/
New advances in technology often bring new dilemmas and ethical questions to the surface. This concept was one of the agenda items at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience that was held November 8 to 12 in New Orleans. The discussion that ensued from the presentations revolving around neuroethics issues is examined in this article from the November 13, 2003 issue of The Scientist.

Fall From Grace (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/weekly/v49/i30/30a01001.htm
Life was good for Quincy Troupe. He had published 13 books, won two American Book Awards, was chosen to be poet laureate of California and Troupe was one of the best-paid humanities professors at the University of California at San DIego. Troupe's world came crashing down when a routine background check uncovered a lie about his academic credentials. Reactions to this news and the message about academic integrity issues such as plagiarism and faking academic credentials are discussed in this article from the April 4, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Federal Agency Proposes Revised Regulations on Research Misconduct Investigations (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/04/2004041901n.htm
On Friday, April 16, 2004, the Federal Register published the revised regulations (http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/14mar20010800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/04-8647.htm) proposed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Changes outlined in this document include the incorporation of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy's (2000) definition of research misconduct. The exiting regulation was approved of in 1989 and updated in 1992. Additional information about the proposal can be found in this article from the April 19, 2004 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

UPDATE (4/26/04): Professional societies and U.S. medical schools have come out in favor of the new rules on research misconduct. Background information about the proposed regulations changes, authored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, was published in the April 26, 2004 edition of the Scientist, and can be accessed at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040426/04/.

Flirting with Fraud--Millikan, Mendel and the Fringes of Integrity
http://www1.umn.edu/ships/updates/fraud.htm
Is fraud a tool of genius? This essay discusses fraud cases that have popped up in science recently and takes a look at Robert Millikan, who won a Nobel Prize in 1923 for an oil-drop experiment.

For Fear of a Cognitive Divide (free registration may be required to access)
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/oct/research1_021028.html
Ethical dilemmas surround the use of cognitive enhancers for persons who have not been diagnosed with any physical ailments. Ethicists are debating whether or not the perceived benefits outweigh the risks associated with some of these drugs. Various groups, like the U. S. military, are very interested in utilizing such drugs, and this October 28, 2002 article from The Scientist explores the ethical aspects associated with the use and misuse of cognitive enhancers.

Former Graduate Student Sentenced to Prison for Faking Theft of Research (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2003/08/2003082102n.htm
Scott M. Doree, a former microbiology graduate student at Michigan State University, was sentenced to 10 months in prison on Monday, August 18, 2003 for falsely reporting that his notebooks, computer disks and two vials of disease-causing bacteria had been stolen. University officials discovered that there was no theft, and an article that appeared in the Lansing State Journal indicates that Doree had been fabricating data since 1998. Details about the investigation and initial fears that boosted those efforts are discussed in this article from the August 21, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

France Allows Stem Cell Work
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040715/01/
A new bioethics law adopted by the French Parliament on July 9, 2004 allows scientists to conduct "embryonic stem cell research." This type of activity will be allowed in France "within strict parameters," but human cloning still remains illegal. Additional information about this law can be found in the July 15, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

Fraud Spurs Cell Paper Retraction
http://genomebiology.com/researchnews/default.asp?arx_id=gb-spotlight-20040213-02

Gary Struhl of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and Columbia University (NY) retracted an article on February 6, 2004 from the journal Cell. The article was originally published in 2002, and it "challenged the conventional theory on Wnt signaling." Details about the misconduct allegations, and reactions to these charges can be found in this February 13, 2004 article from the Scientist.

David Goodstein
David Goodstein is a Vice Provost and professor of physics and applied physics at California Institute of Technology. His home page can be located at http://www.its.caltech.edu/~dg/.

C. K. Gunsalus

Heal Thyself or Die Trying: Ethicists Ponder the Propriety of Self-Experimentation
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/jul/prof3_030714.html
The act of self-experimentation is still practiced by some scientists, and it can prove to be very rewarding in terms of financial and career gains. Due to ethical panel or institutional review board mechanisms, self-experimentation is a much more difficult undertaking than in the days when Issac Newton and Marie Currie did it. This July 14, 2003 issue of The Scientist discusses whether or not self-experimentation should be continued, ethical issues surrounding this form of scientific experimentation, and the historical background of this practice.

Higher Standards for Privately Funded Health Research
http://www.ethicsweb.ca/papers/higher-standards.pdf
To what standard should privately funded research be held? Some argue that it should be held to the same standards as publicly funded research. Chris MacDonald, Department of Philosophy at Saint Mary's University, disagrees. In this article, MacDonald presents his arguments, provides his rationale, and outlines the changes that should be made in order to accommodate this shift.

Increase in Honor Code Caseload Shows Faith in System
http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2003/march12/judicial-312.html
Even though the number of Honor Code violations at Stanford University have significantly increased from 1999 to 2002, the institution's new judicial process is considered to be a success. Professors at Stanford indicate that a major problem with the original Honor Code was that students didn't buy into it. The new process is not designed to prevent cheating but to improve how cases of academic misconduct are handled. Experiences from departments that report numerous cases of cheating plus improvements to the process are outlined in this March 12, 2003 article from the Stanford Report.

Institutionalized Plagiarism
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2004/aug/opinion_040802.html
Silence is golden...at least it seems that way in many academic institutions. Allegations of misconduct have been on the rise, and it appears that a "code of silence" may be enabling researchers to plagiarize materials. This article from the August 2, 2004 issue of the Scientist discusses this problem and examines some of the contributing factors.

Integrity and Misconduct in Research
http://ori.dhhs.gov/documents/report_commission.pdf
"Integrity and Misconduct in Research" is a report of the Commission on Research Integrity that is designed to help advance scientific integrity and efforts in dealing with reports of misconduct. The Commission was formed in 1993 by Congress in response to the misconduct controversies that surrounded the scientific community.

Integrity in Scientific Research
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2003/dec/opinion_031215.html
Dr. Kenneth Pimple, the Director of Teaching Research Ethics Programs at the Poynter Center for the study of Ethics and American Institutions at Indiana University, has written this opinion piece that appears in the December 15, 2003 issue of the Scientist. In this article, Dr. Pimple briefly discusses the Institute of Medicine's report titled, "Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct, and he acknowledges that this document makes six recommendations. Dr. Pimple also outlines four suggestions that he believe may improve the research climate.

Integrity in Scientific Research (2002): Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct
http://www.nap.edu/books/0309084792/html

This 151 page report was produced by the Committee on Assessing Integrity in Research Environments and was made possible by support from the Office of Research Integrity as a way to address accountability in research and ways researchers can perform their work with integrity. This document discusses the findings of the Committee.

Jury Convicts Former Cornell Researcher of Stealing Biological Materials
http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/12/2002121705n.htm
Qingqiang Yin, a Chinese citizen and former postdoctoral research associate at Cornell University, was found guilty of stealing over 250 vials and Petri dishes containing biological materials that are reported to have potential commercial value. Details about this case and how Yin's crime was discovered are discussed in this article from the December 17, 2002 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/kennedy_institute_of_ethics_journal/
The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal provides a diverse selection of viewpoints in the area of bioethics. Topics such as bioethics from a feminist perspective, euthanasia, genetics, organ transplantation and health care reform are merely a few of the areas discussed. Coverage of the Journal is from 1996 to the present.

Lawsuit Against U. of California by Former Livermore Lab Employee is Cleared for Trial (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/07/2003070701n.htm
Michelle Doggett is going to get her day in court. Doggett, a former employee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, filed a lawsuit in 2000 alleging "billing fraud and other misuse of laboratory research funds." She claims she left her job after the lab's top-level managers retaliated against her, and a California court ruled that Doggett can sue the University of California system under the state's whistle-blower law. The University's actions to dismiss Doggett's allegations, as well as other problems that have been plaguing the lab are discussed in this article from the July 7, 2003 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Legal Aspects of Academic Dishonesty
http://campus.northpark.edu/esl/dishnst.html
Dennis Bricault consulted current literature, case law and surveyed 52 North Park University faculty in writing this article. He provides an overview of his findings about academic dishonest and its causes and discusses the legal issues affecting academic misconduct.

Little Evidence for Effectiveness of Scientific Peer Review
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/326/7383/241/a
The international Cochrane Collaboration conducted a study of the effects of peer review on biomedical research. They concluded that this system, which has been in place for approximately 200 years, does not improve the quality of published materials in the biomedical field. This article discusses the review that is the third in a series from the Cochrane Collaboration Methods Group in this article from the February 1, 2003 issue of bmj.com.

A copy of the review entitled, "Editorial Peer-Review from Improving the Quality of Reports of Biomedical Studies", can be found at http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/am000016.htm.

Low Number of Federally Approved Stem-Cell Lines Raises Ethical and Safety Concerns, Panel Says (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2003/11/2003111101n.htm
A panel of scientists and ethicists convened by Johns Hopkins University reported Monday, November 10, 2003 that the 78 stem-cell lines currently authorized for use in federally-funded research would probably "not allow fair access to any resulting experimental medical therapies." The group of eighteen was formed to explore the possible ethical issues and risks associated with stem-cell research. This article from the November 11, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education presents the details surrounding the group's findings and determination.

Macrina, F.L. 2000. Scientific Integrity - An Introductory Text with Cases (Second Edition) American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington, DC. (336 pp.)
**Copies are available in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Check the online catalog (http://www.library.uiuc.edu/catalog/) for specific location and availability.

Medical Journal Retracts Article After Learning of Forged Signatures (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/02/2003021202n.htm
An incident of forgery on an article published in the October edition of the New England Journal of Medicine has caused the publication to retract the article. Editors were unaware of the problem until the article was published and one of the individuals whose signature was forged came forward. It was later learned that other signatures had been forged, and this article from the February 12, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses the reaction to this problem and what steps may be taken to prevent it in the future.

A copy of the full text retraction in the New England Journal of Medicine can be found at http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/NEJMe030015v1.pdf (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view the article, available free).

Medical School Faces 2 Lawsuits Arising from Forced End of Research Projects (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/08/2004080202n.htm
The Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science (formerly known as the Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School) stopped two research projects last week, and now they face two lawsuits that questions those decisions. The projects, one involving 80 pigs that were euthanized and the other involving a breast cancer vaccine, are discussed in this August 2, 2004 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education. Details about the lawsuit are also outlined in this article.

Mending Misconduct
http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/21761/
On Thursday, October 30, 2003, the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Research Integrity (ORI) announced a disciplinary ruling against Ilya Koltover, a researcher in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. According to claims made by ORI, Koltover plagiarized and falsified research proposal data. This article from the November 5, 2003 edition of the Scientist discusses Koltover's acts of misconduct, ORI's ruling, and Northwestern's response to the allegations against Koltover.

The Misuse of Statistics
http://www.biometrica.tomsk.ru/gardenier.pdf
John Gardenier, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and David Resnik, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, discuss the recent development of statistical ethics, why misuse of statistics in research happens, and the importance of correcting misuse of research statistics.

Mixed-Sex Embryos Raise Ethical, Oversight Concerns
A controversial research experiment, conducted by Chicago scientists involving mixed-sex embryos was discussed at a meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology in Madrid. These experiments, which used for the first time human embryos that are part female, part male, were designed to answer questions about "human embryo development and develop therapies for congenital diseases." Even though the research was legal in the U. S., numerous ethical concerns were voiced.

**More information about this issue can be found in the article titled Mixed-Cell Embryo Controversy from July 8, 2003 issue of the Scientist. It can be found at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030708/01/.

Nanotech Ethics Debated
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20031208/04/
One of the points emphasized at the Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology workshop held at the National Science Foundation (NSF) was that ethical issues that may affect nanoscience and nanotechnology must be addressed. Experts at the workshop indicated that these issues must be faced "in order to keep the field from falling victim to obstacles that have hampered progress in biotechnology and stem cell research." This article from the December 8, 2003 issue of The Scientist discusses points addressed at this workshop, and outlines future actions that will help prevent "surprises" in this area of research.

Nanotech is Novel; the Ethical Issues are Not
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2004/feb/opinion_040216.html
There are two different viewpoints in relation to nanotechnology initiatives. One side believes that nanotechnology is a great thing, and often promote a rather "utopian vision." The other side of the fence believes that research in the area of nanotechnology should be halted immediately. These arguments, plus an examination of realistic concerns, such as the effects of nanotechnology on human health and the ethics associated with this novel technology can be found in this article from the February 16, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

National Lab Investigation: Congressional Committee Hears Whistleblowers' Charges of Univ. of California Mismanagement
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030228/05/
An investigation by an oversight subcommittee of the House Committee on Energy & Commerce has indicated that the University of California's laboratory management system is guilty of wrong-doing and misconduct. Investigators believe that the cover-up alone has cost taxpayers millions. This article from the February 28, 2003 issue of the Scientist discusses the allegations and provides links to other related resources.

New Ethics Rules at NIH
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040304/03/
On March 1, 2004, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Blue Ribbon Panel on Conflict of Interest announced that senior NIH officials must now file public financial disclosure forms. These forms will reveal the officials' income, stock, fees, and payments from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Additional details about this ruling can be found in the March 4, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

Newspaper Details Allegations of Academic Fraud and Payoff in Fresno State Basketball Program (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/02/2003021105n.htm
A report published in the Sunday edition of the newspaper, the Fresno Bee, indicates that Russ Mintz, a statistician for the California State University at Fresno's basketball team, was paid to write papers for team basketball players. This February 11, 2003 Chronicle of Higher Education article outlines the allegations and discusses the investigation.

The article that appeared in the Fresno Bee, entitled "Bulldog Academic Fraud Alleged", can be found at http://www.fresnobee.com/local/story/6144847p-7096298c.html.

NIH Bans All Consulting
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20050202/02/
On February 1, 2005, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) unveiled its new "ethics reforms." The regulations will go into effect in the next couple of days, once they are published in the Federal Register. Details about the regulations and who they will affect are discussed in this February 2, 2005 edition of the Scientist.

Information about the new rules can also be found in the February 2, 2005 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education. "New Conflict-of-Interest Rules for NIH Staff Scientists Would Bar Some Payments from Universities" can be found at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2005/02/2005020201n.htm. (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)

NIH Calls for Removal of Some Peer Reviewers to Avoid Conflict of Interest (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/01/2004010601n.htm
The Monday, January 5, 2004 edition of the Federal Register published new rules outlined by the National Institutes of Health. One of the rules states that "scientists who review grant proposals submitted to the National Institutes of Health will be disqualified if they have financial interests in the research totally more than $10,000. This article that appears in teh January 6, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education presents background information that explains the history behind the development of this policy, and discusses possible exceptions to the rule.

NIH Ethics Investigation: Cash Gifts from Grantees Prompt Congressional Investigation of NIH Officials
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030630/06/
As part of an investigation initiated by Rep. Billy Tauzin (R-La.) and Rep. James Greenwood (R-Penn.), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has until July 11, 2003 to turn over documents related to "management and ethical concerns at the agency." Part of the problem stems from awards and gifts from institutions that receive National Cancer Institute and NIH grants that were accepted by current and senior NIH officials. A statement from NIH plus details about the investigation can be found in this June 30, 2003 article from the Scientist.

NIH Ethics Report Draws Criticism
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040812/02/
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) outlined their recommendations regarding conflict of interest regulations, but the U.S. Office of Government Ethics (OGE) doesn't think the NIH proposal goes far enough. The OGE would like to see even tougher regulations in place, and this has some leading biomedical and life sciences organizations concerned. A discussion about the OGE's "recommendation" to NIH can be found in the this August 12, 2004 article from the Scientist.

NIH Probe Expands
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040219/04/
This February 19, 2004 article published in the Scientist addresses two unrelated events plaguing the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The first part examines a legal "loophole" that was used to pay NIH officials salaries of up to $225,000 a year. Part two of the article discusses Rep. Billy Tauzin's (R-La.) resignation from the chair of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. Tauzin's committee has been investigating various NIH practices and policies.

NIH to Launch Ethics Review
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20031210/06/
On December 10, 2003, NIH announced that they are going to begin a major review of how conflict of interest issues are handled within their organization. NIH is taking these steps in response to recent allegations, including reports that came out in the December 7, 2003 issue of The Los Angeles Times, of financial misconduct on the part of present and former senior officials. This article from the December 10, 2003 issue of The Scientist discusses the formation of this NIH "blue ribbon panel" of advisory committee members and outside experts, and examines events that led up to this development.

NIH to Revise Conflict Rules
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040112/01/
In an attempt to clarify "real" versus "apparent" conflicts, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) finalized on January 5, 2004 changes to financial conflict regulations. The new changes will apply to experts participating on peer review of research grants and research and development contracts. These modifications, plus a discussion about the House and Senate subcommittee meetings that will review allegations first reported in the Los Angeles Times can be found in this article published on January 12, 2004 in the Scientist.

NIH Tackling Tricky Ethics Reform
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2004/apr/prof1_040412.html
Currently, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is in the midst of a conflict-of-interest investigation that focuses on outside consulting relationships with drug and biotechnology companies. Many believe that attempts at ethics reform will not be easy, and questions have surfaced as to whether reforms may ultimately impede advances in biomedical research. Arguments and concerns about the reform campaign are examined in this article from the April 12, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

No Decision on Stem Cells
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040116/03/
The first report on stem cell research by the President's Council on Bioethics was released on January 15, 2004, but no definitive positions were outlined in this 400-page plus document. This report titled, Monitoring Stem Cell Research, "outlines the ethical issues surrounding stem cells - in particular embryonic stem cells - and provides an overview of the current federal policy." Additional details about report's contents, and reactions to it are discussed in this article from the January 16, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

Northern Kentucky U. Accuses 4 Professors of Research Misconduct (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/02/2003021803n.htm
Shailendra Verma, chairman of the finance department in Northern Kentucky University's College of Business, resigned and three colleagues were put on "mandatory leave" due to allegations of and an investigation into research misconduct. Details about this investigation and the possibility of appeals are outlined in this article from the February 18, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Additional information can be found about this case can be found in the article titled "Research-Fraud Investigation Leads to 4 More Departures from Northern Kentucky U." from the August 28, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2003/08/2003082802n.htm.

Northwestern U. Pays Federal Fine for Rules Violations in Animal Research (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/01/2004010702n.htm
A yearlong investigation of animal research at Northwestern University has lead to a $9,400 fine. The institution paid the amount to the U. S. Department of Agriculture on Monday, January 5, 2004 after it was revealed that Northwestern "had not kept careful track of the animals it used in research." Other violations and a statement by Northwestern University officials are published in this January 7, 2004 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research
http://bob.nap.edu/readingroom/books/obas
/
In the past, young scientists learned how to deal with ethical questions by observing how the senior scientists they were working with handled these situations. Things have gotten more complex and intertwined that supplemental materials and training were needed. The publication, On Being a Scientist was created in response to this need.

Peer Trouble
http://education.guardian.co.uk/egweekly/story/0,5500,892578,00.html
U.S. science has taken quite a few hits during the past year, ranging from doubts about the authenticity of scientific data to the fabrication of research results. Has the occurrence of academic fraud always been prevalent or are the recent, high-profile cases the result of increased competition for research funds and jobs? This article from the February 11, 2003 issue of the EducationGuardian.co.uk examines some recent misconduct cases, discusses a study by the University of Minnesota on the prevalence of fraud, and explores the effect of peer review on academic integrity.

Penslar, R. 1995. Research Ethics: Cases and Materials. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
**Copies are available in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Check the online catalog (http://www.library.uiuc.edu/catalog/) for specific location and availability.

Pitfalls of Editorial Miscommunication
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/326/7401/1262
In September 2001, Human Immunology, an Elsivier Science journal, published a special issue on anthropology and genetic markers. The guest editor was Dr. Antonio Arnaiz-Villena, head of immunology at a hospital in Madrid and professor of immunology and cell biology at Complutense University (Madrid). Dr. Arnaiz-Villena was recruited by the editor-in-chief because of his expertise in historic genomics, and he also contributed the keynote article for the publication. One of the articles that appeared in this special edition was considered by some to contain "innapropriate political content" and was retracted from Medline and removed from the online edition of the journal. The ethics of withdrawing an article that has been deemed offensive but not scientifically innaccurate is the thrust of this June 7, 2003 article posted on bmj.com.

Plague Researcher Charged with New Crimes
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030904/04/
Thomas C. Butler, a plague researcher, faced 54 new charges from prosecutors on Wednesday, September 3, 2003. Butler was arrested in January 2003 and has been accused of illegally transporting vials of Yersinia pestis bacteria from Tanzania to the U.S. This September 4, 2003 article from the Scientist presents background information on the case, the implications of the additional charges against Butler, and reactions from the scientific community.

A response to the handling of the Butler case can be found in a September 4, 2003 article from the Scientist titled "Smallpox Expert Decries Treatment of Two Scientists." An online version is available at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20030905/04/.

UPDATE (1/29/04): Thomas C. Butler, chief of the infectious diseases department at the Texas Tech University Health Science Center, agreed to resign from his professorship effective January 30, 2004. An article published in the January 29, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education elaborates on the details of this case, and states that Dr. Butler will be sentenced in March 2004. According to his lawyers, Dr. Butler will also pay the university $250,000. This article, titled "Texas Tech Researcher Who Was Convicted in Plague Case Agrees to Resign can be found at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/01/2004012902n.htm. (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)

More information about Dr. Butler's resignation can also be found in an article titled, "Butler to Resign Professorship." The article was published in the January 27, 2004 edition of the Scientist, and can be accessed at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040127/04/.

UPDATE (3/11/04): Thomas Butler, a former Texas Tech professor, was sentenced on March 10, 2004 to twenty-four months in prison for illegally shipping Tanzanian plague samples back to that county, as well as other acts of misconduct. This article from the March 11, 2004 issue of the Scientist and can be accessed at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040311/02/. Details about the ruling and reactions from Butler and his family members are discussed. Additional information can be found in the March 11, 2004 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/03/2004031104n.htm.

UPDATE (3/27/04): Thomas Butler may appeal his 2-year prison sentence. No decision has been made, but Butler is weighing his options. Additional details about the possible appeal can be accessed in the March 25, 2004 issue of the Scientist at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040325/03/.

President of Quincy U. Resigns After Trustees Question Accuracy of His Resume (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/10/2002103003n.htm
Rev. Eugene R. Kole, president of Quincy University (Quincy, IL) resigned from his post on Monday, October 28, 2002 after the University's Board of Trustees discovered that educational experience listed on Kole's resume was inaccurate. This article from the October 30, 2002 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education details the situation.

The Price of Research (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v50/i10/10a02601.htm
Tyrone Hayes, a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley, had been hired as a consultant by Ecorisk, Inc. to conduct research on the herbicide atrazine. Early findings from Hayes' lab indicated that atrazine could have harmful effects on frogs, and Hayes indicates that Ecorisk, Inc. went to great lengths to discredit his findings. Details about the research conducted on atrazine, Hayes' defense of his work plus reaction from critics are presented in this article from the October 31, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Professional Ethics Begins on the College Campus (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v50/i04/04b02001.htm
Integrity has become an important issue in recent ethics scandals, and much of the focus has been on the professions. Candace de Russy, member of the Board of Trustees at the State University of New York and head of its Committee on Academic Standards, believes higher education can play a larger role in the development of professionals who act in an ethical manner. Students often learn through observation, and gain their first exposure to ethical responsibilities in an academic setting. This point of view piece from the September 19, 2003 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education examines what has been done in the past, and how an ethical academic culture could affect integrity in the professions.

Professional Ethics, Day by Day
http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/2002/02JF/02jfrow.htm
Wendy Wassyng Roworth, professor of art history and women's studies at the University of Rhode Island and chair of the AAUP's Committee on Professional Ethics discusses the Joseph Ellis case at Mount Holyoke College and the ethical responsibilities faculty members have to their campus, to their colleagues and to their students.

Professional Ethics Report
http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/per/per.htm
This publication is the result of collaboration by the AAAS Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program, the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility and the Professional Society Ethics Group. E-mail alerts regarding new issues of the Professional Ethics Report can be sent via e-mail to "subscribers" of this service.

Professor at UC-San Diego Admits to Lying on Résumé, Steps Down as State's Poet Laureate (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/10/2002102103n.htm
Quincy Troupe, a professor of literature & creative writing at the University of California at San Diego, stepped down from his poet laureate post after a routine background check revealed that he falsified data on his resume. Troupe was California's first poet laureate and has held teaching positions at schools such as Columbia University, Ohio University and the University of California at Los Angeles. He has been a professor at the University of California-San Diego since 1991.

Report Slams UBC Ethics
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20041115/02/
The Vice President for Research at the University of British Columbia, Indira Samarasekera, had concerns about the university's Clinical Research Board so she decided a review was in order. Some of her concerns stemmed from "inadequate administration and not a reaction to concern about patient safety." The final report has not been made public at this time, but this November 15, 2004 article from the Scientist discusses the portions that have been released as part of a Freedom of Information Act request, and presents reactions to those findings.

Research Ethics in the Headlines
http://mhlp.fmhi.usf.edu/Training/ethics/introduction.htm

The Department of Mental Health Law and Policy at the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute at the University of South Florida has developed a training program to teach behavioral health services researchers ethically responsible research. Part of their site includes a list of news articles from various sources that touch on research ethics issues.

Research Fraud Needn't Happen at All
http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb02/fraud.html

This article by Bridget Murray was published in the February 2002 issue of Monitor on Psychology. Murray discusses the prevalence or lack thereof of data fraud and the damage it causes to the profession each time allegations surface. She presents steps that can be taken to reduce misconduct in research.

Research-Fraud Investigation Leads to 4 More Departures from Northern Kentucky U. (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2003/08/2003082802n.htm
A Northern Kentucky University economics professor was fired, two economics professors resigned and another economics professor retired due to their involvement in a research-fraud scandal. The university conducted an 18-month investigation that uncovered cases of data fabrication and plagiarism. Officials also uncovered listings of authors who did not contribute to the publications. Details about the investigation, its findings and past faculty connections to this case can be found in this August 28, 2003 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Additional information can be found about this case can be found in the article titled "Northern Kentucky U. Accuses 4 Professors of Research Misconduct" from the February 18, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education at http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/02/2003021803n.htm.

Researcher's Assistance in a Controversial AIDS Study Violated Federal Rules, UCLA says
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/04/2003041702n.htm
John L. Fahey, a microbiology professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, did not get proper approval for a project involving AIDS patients in China who had been deliberately infected with malaria, which is a controversial treatment. Dr. Fahey did not participate in the actual clinical trials but merely analyzed the data and blood samples brought to UCLA by Xiao Peng Chen, a Chinese researcher. UCLA's policies plus Dr. Fahey's response are outlined in this article from the April 17, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Education

The Responsible Conduct of Research in the Health Sciences (1989)
http://stills.nap.edu/books/0309062373/html/
Does the research environment encourage scientific misconduct? This report examines issues of this nature, and proposed ways to encourage ethical standards without compromising the creativity of the scientists.

Responsible Science, Volume I (1992): Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process
http://stills.nap.edu/books/0309047315/html/
A twenty-two member panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research was charged with addressing the following questions.

  1. What is the state of current knowledge about modern research practices that may affect integrity of research?
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of educational efforts to promote research integrity?
  3. What are appropriate rolls for private and public institutions in promoting responsible research practices?
The panel's findings are presented in this document.

Responsible Science, Volume II (1993): Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process
http://lab.nap.edu/books/0309047889/html/
Six background papers plus selected institutional guidelines, reports, policies and procedures were used by the panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research to develop several chapters of Responsible Science, Volume I (http://stills.nap.edu/books/0309047315/html/). Those resources are available at this site.

Rice U. Disciplines 15 Students in Cheating Scandal; Varsity Athletes Reportedly Were Involved (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2002/12/2002120907n.htm
Students, many of which were varsity athletes, enrolled in the Rice University lower-level physics course, "Atmosphere, Weather and Climate", were found guilty of cheating on a take-home, open-book, open-note exam. This December 9, 2002 Chronicle of Higher Education article details the sanctions against 15 of the students involved in this case of academic misconduct and describes the history of Rice's honor code policy.

The Role and Activities of Scientific Societies in Promoting Research Integrity
http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/report.pdf
In April 2000, the conference entitled "The Role and Activities of Scientific Societies in Promoting Research Integrity" was held in Washington D. C. to discuss the roles of scientific societies in promoting ethical conduct. This document is a summary of the conference proceedings along with the recommendations for future research and action needed for promoting research integrity.

Ryan Commission Report, Integrity and Misconduct in Research
http://ori.dhhs.gov/documents/report_commission.pdf
The Commission on Research Integrity to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, The Committee on Commerce, and the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources presents this report that outlines its findings in the areas of research misconduct, education & standards for research integrity, responsible whistle blowing and investigations in research misconduct.

Scholar Sends Sham Papers to Social-Work Journals to Show Weakness of Peer Review (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/10/2004102003n.htm
William M. Epstein, a professor of social work at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, submitted bogus articles to a number of peer reviewed journals in his field to examine the peer review process. Epstein's articles contained numerous inaccuracies, design flaws, and baseless conclusions, and none of the 33 journals even came close to publishing the papers. However, Epstein believes his actions illustrate some of the problems associated with the peer review process, but others consider his actions to be "deceptive." The October 20, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education discusses Epstein's hoax, and presents reactions to this type of project.

Science Magazine
http://www.sciencemag.org
Science Magazine often publishes articles dealing with research ethics and academic integrity in science. The archives contain articles going back to 1995, but any issues prior to October 1995 only contain table of contents information.

Science Teaching and the Fringes of Integrity
http://www1.umn.edu/ships/ethics/mott.htm
Mick Nott and Robin Smith, Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University in England, address the issue of teachers engaging in fraud. Nott and Smith examine how science instructors often encounter experiments "going wrong", and the authors discuss the responses they collected from science instructors faced with things "going wrong". An expanded version of this article appeared in the International Journal of Science Education.

Scientific Fraud and the Power Structure of Science
http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/92prom.html

Brian Martin, an associate professor in Science, Technology and Society at the University of Wollongong (Australia), has written this article that was originally published in the June 1992 (Vol. 10, No. 1) edition of Prometheus. Martin explores what criteria constitute scientific fraud and how very few cases involving dubious research practices are singled out and labeled to be scientific fraud. The results and possible benefits of focusing on a few violators are discussed.

Sensitizing Students to Research Fraud
http://www.lemoyne.edu/OTRP/otrpresources/otrp_sensitiz.html
At the 1990 American Psychological Association annual conference, attendees raised concern over the number of research fraud incidents in the behavioral and social sciences. They discovered that teaching materials to educate undergraduate students about research ethics did not exist at that time. The group also discussed the fact that some students do not realize what constitutes misconduct and some "little scientific misdemeanors" are even reinforced at the undergraduate level.

South Korean Researchers Harvest First Stem Cells from a Cloned Human Embryo (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/02/2004021201n.htm
A team of South Korean scientists, headed by Woo Suk Hwang at the Seoul National University have cloned the first human embryo. The scientists also harvested stem cells from the embryo, which could possibly be used to develop treatments for diseases, such as Parkinson's. What these findings mean for future medical treatments, and the possibility of cloning people are discussed in this February 12, 2004 article published in the Chronicle of Higher Education.

UPDATE (5/7/04): On Thursday, May 6, 2004, the journal Nature reported that two members of the research team donated eggs that were used in the South Korean stem-cell study that was reported in February 2004. This new finding has brought several questions to the surface, including the ethics of using students as research subjects. This article titled, "Questions Are Raised About Donors of Eggs Used in South Korean Stem-Cell Study" was published in the May 7, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education and can be accessed at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/05/2004050704n.htm.

Strong Medicine for Doctors (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v50/i18/18a02801.htm
Dr. Robert L. Goodman, a physician at Columbia University, is going up against the pharmaceutical industry, and he has named his national campaign, "No Free Lunch." The main thrust of Dr. Goodman's campaign is to encourage other doctors to stop being "walking billboards for drug companies," and to say "No" to free drug samples and gifts from sales reps. Details about how Dr. Goodman plans to provide medication to low-income patients who have relied on free samples in the past, and the motivation for his actions are discussed in this article from the January 9, 2004 edition of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

More information about the "No Free Lunch" campaign can be found at http://www.nofreelunch.org/.

Students Called on SMS Cheating
http://www.wired.com/news/school/0,1383,57484,00.html
Several students taking an accounting exam at the University of Maryland were caught cheating using their cell phones. Six students admitted to the academic misconduct charges and six others are implicated in this scheme where test takers contacted friends outside the classroom for answers using their cell phones. This January 30, 2003 article from Wired News outlines this case and other cell phone cheating scams.

Survey of Medical School Graduates Raises Privacy Concerns, Group Says (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/daily/2003/07/2003072304n.htm
An annual survey called the Graduate Questionnaire is given to graduating medical students and is used by the Association of American Medical Colleges and individual medical schools. Public Citizen, a public-interest group, has asked the Office for Human Research Protections which oversees human subjects research, to investigate. The group believes that the questionnaire and the way it is administered is possibly unethical. Reactions to these allegations and details describing the concerning aspects of the survey are discussed in this article from the July 23, 2003 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education.

UPDATE (9/17/04): Due to human subjects research concerns raised by the nonprofit advocacy group, Public Citizen, the Association of American Medical Colleges may revise their "Graduating Questionnaire." More than 15,000 graduating medical students are asked to complete the questionnaire. Additional details can be found in the September 17, 2004 Chronicle of Higher Education article titled, "Privacy Concerns Spur Plan to Revise Questionnaire for Medical School Graduates." The article can be accessed at http://chronicle.com/prm/daily/2004/09/2004091702n.htm.

Top NIHers Can't Consult
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040507/03/
The National Institutes of Health's (NIH) "blue ribbon" panel announced their recommendations regarding conflict of interest policies on Thursday, May 6, 2004. The panel decided that "senior NIH officials as well as staff members responsible for grants and funding decisions should not be allowed to consult for pharmaceutical, biotech, or other companies 'under any circumstances.'" The history behind this decision and additional information about this ruling can be found in the May 7, 2004 issue of the Scientist.

University Science Squads Ferret Out Fraud
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/nov/prof_021111.html
In the past, approximately 30% of university investigations uncovered breeches in academic integrity. Recently, though, that number has jumped to 60%. Are universities getting better at uncovering research misconduct? This November 11, 2002 article from The Scientist examines how universities have improved their detection techniques and have altered systems for handling misconduct charges.

What Scientists Can Do To Fight The Frankenstein Myth
http://www.the-scientist.com/yr1998/mar/opin_980302.html
This opinion piece that appeared in The Scientist, by Mildred S. Dresselhaus, president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, suggests that scientists should use the current public scrutiny to help facilitate the move toward research integrity.

Wired for Cheating (must be subscribed to the Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v50/i45/45a02701.htm
Professors who taught an accounting course at the University of Maryland at College Park, banned together to conduct an "experiment" designed to identify cheaters. They discovered that responses on a number of the submitted exams matched those included on the fake answer key, and the professors concluded that 12 students had cheated on the final exam. This article from the July 16, 2004 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education takes a look at how the cheating activities were carried out in this course, and discusses some of the new, high-tech toys that are used to cheat, such as PDAs and cellphones.

Zavos Cloning Article Pulled
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040920/04/
Norbert Gleicher, the editor of the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics (JARG), pulled an article written by Panayiotis Zavos from publication. On August 30, 2004, Zavos held a press conference, and told reporters "he'd created cloned embryos from cow oocytes and the genetic material of dead people." Details about the press conference and Gleicher's decision can be found in the September 20, 2004 issue of the Scientist.


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Case Studies

Applied Ethics in Professional Practice: Case of the Month Club
http://www.niee.org/case-of-the-month/index.htm
In 1997,Ronald E. Bucknam, P.E., Ph.D., developed the "Case of the Month Club". The frequently accessed site is used by more than 100 universities. The program presents cases taken from "professional practice in order to stimulate greater emphasis on ethical issues in a real-world context."

The Case of John Roland Darsee
http://www.unmc.edu/ethics/data/darsee.htm
Darsee was considered to be a golden boy in the area of scientific research. After suspicions were raised that his abstracts contained no actual research, his career was detrimentally damaged. This case outlines details surrounding this situation and what happened after he admitted to falsifying data.

Cases on Research Ethics
http://rcrec.org/r/index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&bid=24&btitle=Navigation&mid=99&ceid=124
A list of cases plus instructions for how to use the cases is available at this site. This Cases on Research Ethics site is part of the RCR: The Online Resource for Instruction and Training in Research Ethics project at http://rcrec.org/.

Clinical Research Workshop Program
http://ethics.ucsd.edu/workshops/CRW/index.html
The Clinical Research Workshop Program site is a collaborative effort of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) and the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). Michael Kalichman, PhD UCSD and Susan Eastwood, ELS UCSF, developed this site to operate as a framework for the workshops which focus on practical and ethical research activities. Case studies are provided for each topic category.

Michael Kalichman has also been involved in the Ethics and Survival Skills Workshop. Cases from that program can be found at http://ethics.ucsd.edu/workshops/CRW/cases/case6.htm.

College Administration Publications: Case Studies
http://www.collegepubs.com/ref/CaseStudies.shtml
College Administration Publications was founded in 1973 and is a periodicals, monographs and seminar provider. Their publications focus on law and policy issues in higher education. The case studies provided at their site cover academic integrity, free speech, harassment and suicide prevention.

Ethical Dilemmas in the University: University of British Columbia (UBC)
http://www.cstudies.ubc.ca/facdev/services/newsletter/89/mar89-1.html
Academics at the University of British Columbia (Canada) began a series or workshops designed to address ethical dilemmas encountered at UBC. The cases presented at this site have been excerpted from The Teaching Professor (January 1989).

Ethics of Education
http://www.uvsc.edu/ethics/curriculum/education/
The Center for the Study of Ethics at Utah Valley State College (Orem, UT) developed this set of cases for their Ethics Across the Curriculum seminar. Topics addressed by the cases presented at this site include equipment usage, software sharing, fair grading policies and copying.

Ethics Updates: Ethics Case Studies
http://ethics.sandiego.edu/resources/cases/HomeOverview.asp
Lawrence Hinman founded this site to be primarily used by ethics instructors and their students in 1994 and continues to edit and maintain it. Cases studies covering topics in business, family, academic and social ethics are provided in this section of the Ethics Updates site. A discussion forum for each case is coming soon.

Information Literacy Ethics Cases
http://www.ycp.edu/library/ifl/etext/etcases.htm
Kimberley Donnelly and Susan Campbell, professors at York College (PA), developed these cases for an Information Literacy 101 class. Each of the 12 case examples are designed to spark discussions about the ethical dilemmas posed in each case as well as possible solutions to the situation described.

Institute for Global Ethics
http://www.globalethics.org/index.htm
The mission of the Institute for Global Ethics is "to promote ethical behavior in individuals, institutions, and nations through research, public discourse, and practical action". Cases presented at this site come from real-life stories told by participants in their Ethical Fitness™ Seminars. Business, education and medical issues are some of the topics covered by the cases.

Markkula Center for Applied Ethics
http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/cases.cfm
The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics was founded in 1986 and has grown into one of the most active university applied ethics centers in the country. It is based at Santa Clara University, and was initially funded by an endowment by Linda and A. C. "Mike" Markkula Jr. Articles, cases, briefings and dialogue in all areas of applied ethics can be found at this online center.

Memorial University of Newfoundland: Case Study Workshop--Resource Materials
http://www.mun.ca/sgs/grip/casestudy_material.php
The Graduate Research Integrity Programme (GRIP) is a "programme designed to provide all graduate students at Memorial University with the knowledge to make informed decisions on integrity issues commonly encountered in the research process." The section on Case Study Workshop Resource Materials provides links to several resources that provide case studies on issues such as authorship, data fabrication, laboratory selection plus other areas of research misconduct.

Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment
http://www.indiana.edu/~poynter/mr.pdf

Materials found at this site were developed for the "Teaching Research Ethics: A Workshop at Indiana University (TRE)" program in December 1995. It is designed to help instructors formulate responses to ethical situations that arise in science. Information on how to use these materials, case studies, and judging responses to moral problems are just a few of the sections included in this document.

The Online Ethics Center for Engineering & Science
http://onlineethics.org
The Online Ethics Center is a great ethics resource for the sciences. It was established in the fall of 1995 under a grant from NSF, and its mission is to "provide engineers and scientists and science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life. Links to cases, essays, codes of ethics and reference materials are merely a few of the resources found at this site.

Kenneth Pimple's Home Page
http://php.indiana.edu/~pimple/
Kenneth Pimple is the director of the Teaching Research Ethics Programs at the Poynter Center. His home page has numerous ethics resources including papers and presentations on ethics, case studies, and letters on federal policy.

Selected RRP Case Studies & Materials
http://www.responsibility.research.umich.edu/casematerialsdir.html
The cases presented at this site have been adapted for the University of Michigan Research Responsibility Program (RRP). Responsibility in research, authorship issues, conflict of interest and data management are a few of the topics addressed by the cases.

SHiPS: Research Ethics
http://www1.umn.edu/ships/ethics/research.htm
SHiPs began in 1989 and is made up of a network of sciences teachers. They developed this online library for researchers to use as a resource to plan and learn more about the social sciences and about social science issues. The section on Research Ethics contains classroom and historical case studies, institutions & policies, periodicals and essays.

Teaching Engineering Ethics: A Case Study Approach
http://ethics.tamu.edu/pritchar/an-intro.htm
A list of more than 30 case studies dealing with issues that arise in the field of engineering can be found at this site. Topics include areas such as acknowledging mistakes, conflict of interest, dissent, environmental & safety concerns, ownership site. The site was edited by Michael S. Pritchard, Director of the Center for the Study of Ethics in Society at Western Michigan University.

Univerity of Illinois Ethics Training
http://ethics.uillinois.edu/training/program/Format.htm
This site, sponsored by the University of Illinois Ethics Office, is designed to: 1) develop a shared understanding among a diverse workforce; 2) improve employee decision making and commitment; 3) reduce unethical or illegal behavior; and 4) support a culture that encourages tolerance and fairness. Various scenarios are presented and possible answers are outlined in a multiple choice format. Information regarding why an answer is correct or not is also provided.

US Misconduct Rules Examined
http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20040622/03/
Individuals representing professional societies and U.S. medical schools are alarmed by the proposed changes to the rules overseeing federally funded research. If the changes outlined in the report drafted by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and submitted to the Public Health Service (PHS) were adopted, the burden of proof in misconduct investigations would be on the individual scientists. Details about the proposed changes and the concern groups are voicing are outlined in this June 22, 2004 article from the Scientist.

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Policies and Guidelines

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
http://www.aaas.org/
AAAS was founded in 1848, and its mission includes the following 4 areas:

  1. Science and Policy
  2. International Programs
  3. Education and Human Resources
  4. Project 2061

American Physical Society Guidelines for Professional Conduct
http://web.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/course/2/2.95j/Codes-of-Ethics/APS-Code-of-Conduct.html

The guidelines outlined in this document are the "minimum standards" of ethical behavior relating to research results, publication & authorship practices, peer review and conflict of interest issues in the physics profession.

American Psychological Association (APA)

American Public Health Association (APHA): Public Health Code of Ethics
http://www.apha.org/codeofethics/ethics.htm
The ethical principles that appear in this APHA code of ethics highlight issues that are unique to the public health field.

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE was founded in 1852 and is one of the oldest national engineering societies.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Ethics
http://www.asme.org/Governance/Society_Policies.cfm
ASME requires its members to adhere to the ethical standards addressed in this code.

American Statistical Association (ASA): Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice
http://www.amstat.org/profession/ethicalstatistics.html
ASA's Committee on Professional Ethics prepared these guidelines, and they were approved by their Board of Directors on August 7, 1999. This document contains two sections: the preamble and ethical guidelines.

Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA)
http://www.primr.org/membership/overview.html
ARENA is a national membership organization that deals with biomedical and behavioral research issues such as scientific misconduct, ethical decision-making in health care, and the protection of human and animal subjects. The group was organized in 1986.

Association for Practical and Professional Ethics
http://php.ucs.indiana.edu/~appe/home.html
The Association for Practical and Professional Ethics was founded in 1991 with the support of Indiana University and a Lilly Endowment. Their mission is to "encourage interdisciplinary scholarship and teaching of high quality in practical and professional ethics by educators and practitioners." This site includes association information, association activities, association publications, and electronic networking opportunities.

Association of University Professors (AAUP): Statement on Professional Ethics
http://www.aaup.org/statements/Redbook/Rbethics.htm
The statement that appears at this site is a revised version that originally appeared in 1966. In 1987, the Association's Council adopted this current document that was endorsed at the Seventy-third Annual Meeting.

Center for Academic Integrity (CAI)
http://www.academicintegrity.org

The Center for Academic Integrity is affiliated with the Kenan Institute of Ethics at Duke University, and their mission is "to identify and affirm the values of academic integrity and to promote their achievement in practice".

Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR)
http://www.cur.org/conferences/responsibility/ResRespons.html
The mission of the CUR is to "support and promote high-quality undergraduate student-faculty collaborative research and scholarship". In June 2002, CUR held a major symposium on Research Responsibility and Undergraduates. Manuscripts, post-conference workshop summaries, and news on guidelines related to responsible research are merely a few of the resources posted at this site.

Creating a Code of Ethics for Your Organization
http://www.ethicsweb.ca/codes/
Chris MacDonald, PhD, Philosophy Department, St. Mary's University (Halifax, Canada) has put together this site with links to resources to assist individuals and groups in writing a code of ethics. He discusses why organizations and institutions should even have a code and provides guidance in writing one. He also provides links to essays on ethics, sample codes and contacts for ethics consultants.

Ethical Principles for College and University Teaching
http://www.mcmaster.ca/stlhe/documents/Ethical%20Principles%20in%20University%20Teaching.pdf
In May 1996, Canada's Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (STLHE) began distributing a document entitled, "Ethical Principles for College and University Teaching" to its membership. The Society doesn't consider it to be the final word on the topic but "food for thought". This site has a document posted to spark discussions on this topic in the U. S.

Federal Policy on Research Misconduct
http://www.ostp.gov/html/001207_3.html
The Office of Science & Technology Policy has posted this site that includes information on issues such as requirements for findings of scientific misconduct, responsibilities of federal agencies and research institutions, guidelines for fair and timely procedures, and agency administrative actions.

Framework for Policies and Procedures to Deal with Research Fraud
http://www.aau.edu/reports/FrwkRschFraud.html
This Association of American Universities document grew out of the belief that universities should be held responsible for the actions of their faculty and staff, not research sponsors. As a result of this belief an interagency group got together to develop this "framework" in 1988. Areas such as "Definition of Research Fraud" and "Process for Handling Allegations of Research Fraud" are covered in this document.

Illinois Institute of Technology Codes of Ethics Online
http://www.iit.edu/departments/csep/PublicWWW/codes/
Illinois Institute of Technology's Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions developed this online collection of over 850 codes of ethics. They were given a grant from NSF in 1996 to put their collection of codes on the Web, and it has grown out of the Center's Library of codes that resides in their vertical file. In addition to the codes, resources for authoring a code, case studies and other information can be found at this site.

National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE): Ethics in Employment Task Force Report
http://www.nspe.org/ethics/eh1-report.asp
NSPE believes that engineers have an obligation to make known ethical concerns in the workplace. This document lists conditions that need to exist in order for there to be a healthy work environment. Issues such as solving ethical dilemmas, reporting concerns & violations and questions to ask before taking action are some of the areas covered in this document.

Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP)
http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/
This OHRP site, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, provides links to Institutional Review Board (IRB) registration and filing information, policy guidelines, compliance oversights, educational materials and upcoming workshop events.

Office of Research Integrity (ORI)
http://ori.dhhs.gov
The goal of ORI is to "promote integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the Public Health Service (PHS)". This site has links to resources like breaking news stories, tips for handling misconduct, publications, and policies/regulations/statutes.

Scientific Freedom, Responsibility & Law
http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/
An AAAS Directorate for Science & Policy that focuses on the ethical, legal and social issues associated with the conduct of research and with the advances in science and technology. Information and links to projects & activities, publications, and access to the PER newsletter (http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/per/per.htm) can be found at this site.

University of California, San Diego: Office of Graduate Studies and Research
The Office of Graduate Studies and Research at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) has posted policies that are applicable to those doing research.

University of Illinois Handbook for Good Ethical Practice for Faculty and Staff: 2nd ed.
http://ethics.uillinois.edu/resources/handbook.html
"The handbook contains references and resources to provide a framework for proper conduct and to assist employees in making sound judgments that not only further the interests of the university but also treat all members of our community fairly and respectfully."

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Resources & Centers

Academic Integrity in the Classroom: A Selected List of Resources for the University of Michigan
http://www.lib.umich.edu/acadintegrity/index.htm
Even though the title suggests the resources found at this site are specifically for those at the University of Michigan, there are numerous resources that are applicable to students and instructors at any institution.

Centre for Applied Ethics
http://www.ethics.ubc.ca
The Centre for Applied Ethics was created in 1993 by the University of British Columbia's Board of Governors as an interdisciplinary research center. Their goal is to advance research in the area of applied ethics, and their site includes resources in areas such as health care, business, animal welfare & use, and the media.

Chowan College Center for Ethics
http://www.chowan.edu/acadp/ethics/
Faculty at Chowan College in Murfreesboro, North Carolina voted to establish the Chowan Center for Ethics in 1997. The Center's principle objective is "to heighten ethical awareness and 'moral imagination'" by encouraging discussion about today's ethical issues. Numerous resources can be found such as links to ethics and community resource sites and ethics across the curriculum resources.

ELSI Project: Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Science
http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/ELSI.html
The ELSI Project was developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as a way to explore ethical issues that surround research occurring at LBNL and other national labs.

Ethics and Science: Washington University, St. Louis
http://www.library.wustl.edu/subjects/generalsci/ethics.html
The Washington University Library has developed a site with numerous ethical resources available on the Web. Ethics information covering all areas and disciplines are provided.

Ethics in Science
http://www.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/ethics/
Science ethics resources and science ethics essays are the two types of materials found at this site. Ethics in Science is no longer updated on a regular basis, but it still contains germane materials.

Ethics in Science: Annotated Bibliography, Towson University
http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/ethics/ethicbib.htm
Dr. Linda Sweeting, Department of Chemistry at Towson University, created this annotated bibliography for the advanced writing course "Professional Ethics for Scientists". It is organized by topic areas such as Internet, course topics, novels and writing tips.

Ethics on the World Wide Web
http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/ethics/ethics_list.html
The School of Communications at California State University, Fullerton developed this ethics site that contains information on associations, codes, and topic areas such as science, business and medicine.

Ethics Updates Home Page: Moral Theory; Relativism; Pluralism; Religion; Egoism; Utilitarianism; Deontology; Duty; Human Right
http://ethics.sandiego.edu/index.html

Lawrence Hinman founded this site to be primarily used by ethics instructors and their students in 1994 and continues to edit and maintain it. Resources on ethical theory, applied ethics and additional resources such as case discussions and ethical forums can be located at this site. If you want to learn more about ethics jargon, check out the Ethics Glossary at http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Glossary.html.

Institute for the Study of Applied and Professional Ethics
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~ethics/
An interest in ethics at Dartmouth College began as a grass-roots initiative by the faculty. This site provides a list of various ethics resources available on the Web.

Integrity in Science A CSPI Project
http://www.cspinet.org/integrity/index.html
Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Ph.D., a bioethicist who has focused her career on ethical issues in health care and the environment, directs this project of the Center for Science in the Public Interest (http://www.cspinet.org/index.html). This projected stemmed from the growing number of partnerships between science and industry and the ethical issues that result from such partnerships.

Internet Resources Research Ethics
http://bubl.ac.uk/link/r/researchethics.htm
BUBL Link is a mega "catalog' of Internet resources covering various academic subject areas. An extensive section on research ethics has been compiled at this site.

The Kenan Institute for Ethics
http://kenan.ethics.duke.edu/links9.asp
The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University was started in 1995 with a 5 year grant from the William R. Kenan Jr. Fund for Ethics. Frank Kenan was concerned about the growing lack of ethics in public affairs and business, and developed this and other ethics programs in North Carolina in response to that concern. The Links section of this site has numerous resources covering areas such as ethics associations & centers, journals & Web sites, business & professional ethics and research ethics.

Markkula Center for Applied Ethics
http://www.scu.edu/ethics/
The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics was founded in 1986 and has grown into one of the most active university applied ethics centers in the country. It is based at Santa Clara University, and was initially funded by an endowment by Linda and A. C. "Mike" Markkula Jr. Articles, cases, briefings and dialogue in all areas of applied ethics can be found at this online center.

North Carolina State University Research Ethics Modules
http://www.fis.ncsu.edu/Grad/ethics/modules/index.htm
North Carolina State faculty experts were instrumental in the development of the 10 ethics modules presented at this site. Each module covers a specific topic in the area of research ethics, such as authorship, animal & human subjects, research misconduct and intellectual property.

The Online Ethics Center for Engineering & Science
http://onlineethics.org
The Online Ethics Center is a great ethics resource for the sciences. It was established in the fall of 1995 under a grant from NSF, and its mission is to "provide engineers and scientists and science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life". Links to cases, essays, codes of ethics and reference materials are merely a few of the resources found at this site.

On-Line Science Ethics Resources
http://www.chem.vt.edu/ethics/vinny/ethxonline.html

Brian Tissue, Department of Chemistry at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, maintains the resources available at this site. Resources include links to Web sites, science ethics centers, and online codes of conduct, guidelines for authors and more.

Open Directory - Science in Society Research Ethics
http://dmoz.org/Science/Science_in_Society/Research_Ethics/
The Open Directory Project claims to be the "largest, most comprehensive human-edited directory of the Web". Resources included in their Research Ethics section include general research ethics materials, bioethics resources and guidelines to codes & publications. Related links for information on subjects like issues in science and technology can be found in their "see also" section.

Philosophical Foundations of Scientific Ethics
http://www.physics.emich.edu/mthomsen/resn1.htm
David Resnik, Department of Philosophy at the University of Wyoming presented this paper at the Ethical Issues in Physics Workshop. Resnik discusses the concepts of scientific ethics and suggests that internal concerns and the norms of society guide scientific ethics.

Other articles on scientific ethics presented at the Ethical Issues in Physics Workshop can be found at http://www.physics.emich.edu/mthomsen/ethtaboc.htm.

Kenneth Pimple, PhD-Poynter Center

Poynter Center
http://www.indiana.edu/~poynter/

In 1972, this endowed ethics center was established with funding assistance from Nelson Poynter. The Center's Web site includes links to their major projects, like the Teaching Research Ethics workshop, publications and other ethics resources.

Research Ethics for Scientists
http://www-phil.tamu.edu/%7Egary/bioethics/ethicaltheory/index1.html
Clark Wolf, Department of Philosophy at the University of Georgia, originally prepared this site for the 1997 Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. Wolf includes resources on research ethics, responsible conduct and cases for consideration.

Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Education: RCR Educational Resources
http://ori.dhhs.gov/education/rcr_resources.shtml

This site is designed to be a resource to help institutions develop their own RCR program and to facilitate the sharing of resources among institutions. Some of the resources currently available at this site include comprehensive RCR resources, mentor/trainee responsibilities materials, human and animal subjects links and research misconduct information.

Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Online: The Online Resource for Instruction and Training in Research Ethics
http://rcr.ucsd.edu
The purpose of this site is to assist instructors of responsible conduct of research. This site, which is currently being expanded, is designed to provide:

  1. a focus for the community of people interested in promoting RCR.
  2. a step-by-step approach to developing a program for instruction in the responsible conduct of research (RCR).
Resources available at this site include goals for teaching RCR, formats for teaching RCR, case studies and other materials.

SHiPS Research Ethics
http://www1.umn.edu/ships/ethics/research.htm
SHiPs began in 1989 and is made up of a network of science teachers. They developed this online library for researchers to use as a resource to plan and learn more about the social sciences and about social science issues. The section on Research Ethics contains classroom and historical case studies, institutions & policies, periodicals and essays.

Teaching Chemical Research Ethics
http://www.lib.duke.edu/chem/ethics/
The Duke University Chemistry Library has designed this site primarily for the university professor or lab manager who wants to incorporate research ethics into their curriculum. All the resources on this site have been developed to be applicable to undergraduate and graduate students. Case studies, journals, core texts, and encyclopedias are just a few of the types of resources available at this site.

Teaching Ethics for Research, Scholarship & Practice
http://www.research.umn.edu/ethics/
The Office of the Vice President for Research and the Dean of the Graduate School at the University of Minnesota have developed this site to be a resource for faculty who are integrating research ethics into their curriculum. It is also designed to "foster increased awareness of ethical issues". Types of materials included at this site are course development resources, instructional materials and outside links.

Univerity of Illinois Ethics Training
http://ethics.uillinois.edu/training/program/Format.htm
This site, sponsored by the University of Illinois Ethics Office, is designed to: 1) develop a shared understanding among a diverse workforce; 2) improve employee decision making and commitment; 3) reduce unethical or illegal behavior; and 4) support a culture that encourages tolerance and fairness. Various scenarios are presented and possible answers are outlined in a multiple choice format. Information regarding why an answer is correct or not is also provided.

Walter W. Stewart's Site on Scientific Misconduct
http://home.t-online.de/home/Bernhard.Hiller/wstewart/main.html
Walter W. Stewart and Ned Feder have a long-standing interest in scientific misconduct. Links to cases of misconduct, whistleblowers, and articles on misconduct can be found at this site.

Wharton Ethics Program
http://ethics.wharton.upenn.edu/
The goal of this program is to "produce outstanding research on ethical issues confronting business managers and firms; to study the effectiveness of management strategies for creating an ethical environment within firms; to study the impact of public policy on ethical behaviors in business and to critically consider the content, role, and effectiveness of ethics education". A ticker tape bar runs across this site with the latest news articles that have an ethics slant to them. The Research section of the site has links to Web sites dealing with ethics.

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Subject Specific Ethics Resources

Anthropology Ethics

Art Ethics

Bioethics. See also the Biotechnology Web Page (UIUC)

Business Ethics

Ethics Case Studies

History Ethics

Journalism

Plagiarism

Social Science Ethics: A Bibliography

Sociology Ethics

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*This site is an adaptation of Web pages I created for the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Created by Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
©September 30, 2002
Updated June 7, 2006