Social Science Ethics: A Bibliography

Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
sstoer@yahoo.com

Articles~~Books~~Other Ethics Resources


Articles

Abbott, Andrew. (1983). "Professional Ethics." American Journal of Sociology 88, no. 5 (March): 855-885.
Andrew Abbott provides this comparative analysis, based on a presentation at the Hastings Center (NY). In this paper, Abbott "establishes five basic properties of professional ethics codes." The five include: (1) universal distribution; (2) correlation with intra-professional status; (3) enforcement dependent on visibility; (4) individualism; and (5) emphasis on colleague obligations.

Allchin, Douglas. "Values in Science: An Introduction." Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/ships/ethics/values.htm.
Ethical decisions are based on morals and principles that go beyond merely one person's feelings or beliefs. Douglas Allchin examines three different ways science and values are connected, and they include: (1) values that guide scientific research; (2) the scientific enterprise is always embedded in some particular culture and values enter science through individual practitioners, whether consciously or not; and (3) values emerge from science, and may be redistributed more broadly in culture or society.

Allen, Charlotte. (1997). "Spies Like Us: When Sociologists Deceive Their Subjects." Lingua Franca 7, no. 8 (November): 31-39.
Carolyn Ellis, a sociologist formerly from the University of South Florida, studied the "kinship network" among a group of Guinea waterman from 1972 to 1981. The "Fishnecks," Ellis' pseudonym for the Guinea men, were informed about Ellis' book that resulted from interviews and interactions with this group. Reactions to Ellis' book, especially certain unflattering remarks that were documented by Ellis, and the justification she gives for deceiving her subjects are addressed in this article.

American Association of University Professors. (2000). "Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research." Retrieved from http://www.aaup.org/statements/Redbook/repirb.htm.
Staff members of the American Association of University Professors compiled this report after joint association meetings that were held in November 1999 and May 2000. Representatives from the American Anthropological Association, the American Historical Association, the American Political Science Association, the American Sociological Association and the Organization of American Historians joined forces to discuss issues affecting social science researchers and others who are subject to government regulations involving human subjects.

Anderson, Melissa S., Karen Seashore Louis, and Jason Earle. (1994). "Disciplinary and Departmental Effects on Observations of Faculty and Graduate Student Misconduct." Journal of Higher Education 65, no. 3: 331-351.
Two-thousand doctoral students in U.S. research institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of misconduct and the frequency of student exposure to these activities. An analysis of the findings plus the variation in the types of research misconduct across disciplines is discussed in this May-June 1994 article from the Journal of Higher Education.

Brainard, Jeffrey. (2001). "The Wrong Rules for Social Science? Scholars Say U.S. Human Subjects Protections Designed for Medical Studies, Hinder Vital Work." Chronicle of Higher Education 47, no. 26 (March 9): A21. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/v47/i26/26a02101.htm. (must be subscribed to The Chronicle of Higher Education to access)
Not everyone has a pleasant experience working with their university's IRB office. Many researchers, especially those in the social sciences, are concerned that they are unnecessarily burdened with regulations that were primarily designed to protect subjects participating in biomedical research projects. This March 9, 2001 article from the Chronicle of Higher Education examines some of the issues surrounding IRB review of research involving oral histories, interviews, survey research, anthropological fieldwork and journalistic endeavors. This article also discusses why the regulations exist and considers what changes social scientist may see in the future.

Chase, Alston. (2000). "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber." Atlantic Online (June). Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/06/chase.htm.
Did Harvard University create the Unabomber? This article from the June 2000 issue of the Atlantic Online examines a research initiative that took place in Harvard's Department of Social Relations from 1959 through the spring of 1962. Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, participated in this project that is now categorized as an "ethically indefensible experiment on twenty-two undergraduates." Details about the project and about Kaczynski demise are presented.

Ellis, Carolyn. (1995). "Emotional and Ethical Quagmires in Returning to the Field." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 24, no. 1 (April): 68-98.
This article, published in the April 1995 issue of the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, examines the ethnographic research conducted by Carolyn Ellis on the "Fisher Folk." Details about her relationship with this group, how the individuals she studied found out about her book even though many were illiterate, the "disparaging comments" that were included in the publication, and Ellis' feelings about the entire project are addressed.

Erikson, Kai. (1996). "A Response to Richard Leo." American Sociologist 27 (Spring): 129-130.
This "response" by Kai Erikson discusses Richard Leo's use of deception in research, and addresses a counter position in dealing with subjects that involves the use of "moral absolutism."

Federman, Daniel, Kathi E. Hanna, and Laura Lyman Rodriguez, eds. (2002). "Responsible Research: A Systems Approach to Protecting Research Participants." Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/execsumm/0309084881.html.
Advances in science and technology not only result in improvements that benefit mankind, but they may create unforeseen problems as well. Some of these problems may surface as risks to those who participate in studies that are designed to determine the actual benefits that may be accrued with a particular new innovation. Topics such as ethics, conflicts of interest, review of research protocols, and other components of human subjects research are presented.

Frankel, Mark S., and Sanyin Siang. (1999). "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Human Subjects Research on the Internet." A Report of a Workshop. (June 10-11). Retrieved from http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/intres/report.pdf.
The Internet has opened up new avenues of research opportunities. Since the Internet is a relatively untested research arena, unanticipated problems and dilemmas often arise. This report examines the realm of the Internet and assesses how research and human subjects may be affected by cyberspace.

Galliher, John F., and James M. Galliher. (1995). "Professional Ethics, Personal Moral Commitment and the Law." American Sociologist 26 (Spring): 4-7.
The authors of this article examine issues such as the biases of American social sciences, attempts by the government to control social science research, and the commitment to professional ethics and the human condition as it relates to ethics.

Gannon, Shane P. (2002-2003). "The Popularity of Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: An Analysis of Historical Trends of Scholarship." Gateway: An Academic Journal on the Web (Winter): 1-12.
This article provides a historical overview of Max Weber and his most well-known work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Information about the climate that was in existence at the time this work was developed and the variation in the amount of influence it has exuded over the years is discussed.

Garfield, Eugene. (1987). "Is There Room in Science for Self-Promotion?" Scientist 1, no. 27 (December 14): 9. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/yr1987/dec/opin4_871214.html.
Cases of scientific misconduct have been making the headlines, and issues that often surface concerning plagiarism, falsification of data and other errors are discussed in this opinion piece. The increase in the number of scientists seeking favorable media attention for their research, and the possibility that only those who are well-versed in public relations will survive are also presented.

Gouldner, Alvin. (1968). "The Sociologist as Partisan: Sociology and the Welfare State." American Sociologist 3, no. 2 (May): 103-116.
Alvin Gouldner discusses whether the concept of value-free science is a myth, and takes a look at the scenarios involving scientists who relate to and identify with the "deviant" individuals they study. Several references are made to Howard S. Becker's paper, "Whose Side Are We On."

Gunsalus, C. K. "An Examination of Issues Presented By Proposals to Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of Human Subject Research." Retrieved from http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/nbac/human/overvol2.html.
This document discusses various concerns and debates surrounding federal oversight of human subject research. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) posed a two-part question that laid the foundation for this paper. Who should be responsible for oversight of human subject research, and the scope of this authority is addressed by Gunsalus.

Gunsalus, C. Kristina. (2003). "Human Subject Protections: Some Thoughts on Costs and Benefits in the Humanistic Disciplines." Working Draft. (March 19). Retrieved from http://www.law.uiuc.edu/conferences/humansubject/papers/Human%20Subject%20Protections%20Paper%20March%202003.pdf.
C. K. Gunsalus discusses several issues affecting the oversight of human subject research in this working draft. The current state of federal protections as they relate to human subjects research, problems related to tighter regulations imposed by university IRB offices, and the rationale behind certain requirements are discussed. Possible solutions to these dilemmas are also presented.

Haimes, Erica. (2002). "What Can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Ethics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substantive Considerations." Bioethics 16, no. 2: 89-113.
Haimes examines the current role of social scientists in the formation of a moral research foundation. She also discusses contributions those in the social sciences can make to the study of ethics. Theoretical work that can add to the understanding of ethics, contributions made by empirical social scientists, and ways social science research can enhance the understanding of ethics as a field of study are just a few of the topics presented in this article.

Harrison, Barbara, and E. Stina Lyon. (1993). "A Note on Ethical Issues in the Use of Autobiography in Sociological Research." Sociology 27, no. 1 (February): 101-110. Full text available from InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP.
This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the impact of ethics on the use of autobiography as a research tool in sociology. The research relationship of autobiography and the ethics of autobiography are also addressed.

Hasian, Marouf A., and Thomas K. Nakayama. (1997). "The Empire Strikes Back: The Sokal Controversy and the Vilification of Cultural Studies (Controversy Surrounding Hoax Article on Postmodern Physics Published by Alan Sokal in 1996)." Journal of Communication Inquiry 21, no. 2 (Fall): 45-56. Full text available from InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP.
The authors of this article take a look at the controversial Sokal "hoax." Alan Sokal, a physicist, published a fabricated paper about postmodern physics in the peer-reviewed publication Social Text. Details about what happened after Sokal's work was revealed as a spoof and his rationale behind concocting such an undertaking are outlined.

Hilgartner, Stephen. (1997). "The Sokal Affair in Context: Physicist Alan Sokal's Experiment Designed to Determine Whether Parody of Cultural Studies Will Pass as Serious Academic Paper." Science, Technology, & Human Values 22, no. 4 (Autumn): 506-523. Full text available from InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP.
Hilgartner discusses the Sokal controversy, and examines whether this "hoax" truly verifies the "bankruptcy" of cultural studies. The author of this article also compares the Sokal "experiment" to one conducted by William M. Epstein that proved to elicit a vastly different response.

Lee, Felicia R. (2003). "The Academic Industrial Complex." New York Times (September 6): sec. A, p. 13(N).
As more and more cuts are made to the budgets of numerous higher education institutions, additional pressure is placed on academics to find alternative sources of funding. Partnerships with corporate entities, the patenting and licensing of research initiatives and the push to create start-up companies have created new ethical quandaries for many in the academic arena. Some of these endeavors are also creating shifts in the mission of higher education. Discussions regarding the "commercialization of higher education" and its effects can be found in this article.

Leo, Richard A. (1996). "The Ethics of Deceptive Research Roles Reconsidered: A Response to Kai Erikson. American Sociologist 27 (Spring): 122-128.
Richard Leo defends his position regarding the use of deception in research and counters Kai Eriksons's comments on this topic (Kai Erikson, American Sociologist, 27: 129-130.). Leo outlines the points made by Erikson and discusses his thoughts on each one.

Leo, Richard A. (1995). "Trials and Tribulations: Courts, Ethnography, and the Need for an Evidentiary Privilege for Academic Researchers." American Sociologist 26 (Spring): 113-134.
Richard Leo conducted research on U.S. interrogation rooms and what actually happens at this stage of the criminal justice system. According to Leo, this was an arena that required deception in order to gain access to the data and to secure a level of acceptance and trust from his subjects. Details describing police interrogation rooms, and the problems encountered in gaining access to information and subjects under these conditions are presented.

Maslach, Christina. (1996). "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." (August 12). Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/relaged/970108prisonexp.html.
Christina Maslach took actions one evening in 1971 that would halt the Stanford Prison Experiment before the project came to a natural conclusion. What Maslach encountered when she entered the experiment's research site, plus theories as to why the project was not questioned by other "visitors" before that night are discussed. The ethics surrounding the Stanford Prison Experiment, and the effect human subjects review has on this type of project are also addressed.

Monaghan, Peter. (1993). "Sociologist Spends 16 Weeks in Spokane County Jail." Chronicle of Higher Education (September 1): A8.
Rik Scarce, who was a doctoral candidate at Washington State University, spent 16 weeks in jail for refusing to turn over his subpoenaed field notes. Details are presented about events leading up to Scarce's arrest, and the reasons behind his decision to maintain the confidentiality of his subjects.

National Academy of Sciences. (1995). On Being a Scientist. Retrieved from http://bubl.ac.uk/docs/science/obas/.
This publication is one that is often distributed to graduate students as part of ethics training initiatives undertaken by academic institutions. The title may indicate a focus on researchers in the sciences, but even those in the social sciences will benefits from the discussions. Experimental techniques, treatment of data, values in science, conflicts of interest, allocation of credit, and other topics are addressed. Scenarios that help illustrate academic integrity dilemmas are also provided.

Nelson, James Lindemann. (2000). "Moral Teachings from Unexpected Quarters: Lessons for Bioethics from the Social Sciences and Managed Care." Hastings Center Report 30, no. 1 (January-February): 12-17.
This article discusses some of the ethical contributions from the social sciences that can be made to the field of bioethics. Elements of moral reasoning, the transition between moral and epistemic values, and managed care as a moral teacher are a few pointed addressed by the author.

Nielsen, Greg. (1995). "Bakhtin and Habermas: Toward a Transcultural Ethics." Theory and Society 24, no. 6 (December): 803-835.
Nielsen compares and contrasts the work of Bakhtin and Habermas, and examines their works within the context of ethics.

Peshkin, Alan. (1984). "Odd Man Out: The Participant Observer in an Absolutist Setting." Sociology of Education 57, no. 4(October): 254-264.
Alan Peshkin conducted fieldwork at a fundamentalist Christian school and church in Illinois. Peshkin was able to gain insight and acceptance even though he was not a fundamentalist Christian. This article examines three different points: (1) the nature of participant observer deception; (2) the limits of the role of deception they practice to advance their work; and (3) the limits of the human participant observers' role.

Robinson, Steve. "The Jurgen Habermas Web Resource." Retrieved from http://www.msu.edu/user/robins11/habermas/main.html.
Steve Robinson initially created this site as part of a doctoral class project at Michigan State University. The site addresses the following topic areas: (1) sources for Habermas and his work; (2) Habermas and the public sphere; (3) Habermas and communication theory; (4) discourse of ethics; and (5) the debate over modernity.

Roemer, John E. (1989). "Marxism and Contemporary Social Science (Issues in Contemporary Marxism)." Review of Social Economy 47, no. 3 (Winter): 377-392. Full text available from InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP.
Marxism and the theories associated with him can trace their roots to over one hundred years ago. Many things have changed in the realm of social sciences since the development of Marxism. This article by John E. Roemer examines changes in the social sciences and how Marxism has evolved in response to those changes.

Rosenhan, David L. (1973). "On Being Sane in Insane Places." Science 179 (January): 250-258. Retrieved from http://web.cocc.edu/lminorevans/on_being_sane_in_insane_places.htm.
David Rosenhan conducted an experiment involving the use of deception to determine how sanity and insanity are recognized. This project enlisted the help of normal people who gained admittance into psychiatric hospitals. Details about the experiment, Rosenahan's findings, and conclusions about the mental health diagnosis process are outlined.

Roth, John K. (1992). "Max Weber." Great Thinkers of the Western World 451-456. Full text available from InfoTrac Web: Expanded Academic ASAP.
John K. Roth discusses the influence that Max Weber had and continues to have on the field of sociology. Weber's most well-known work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is examined and critiqued.

Rubin, David-Hillel. (1998). "Social Science, Philosophy of." Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://www.rep.routledge.com/article/R047.
This encyclopedia entry discusses the philosophy of social science, and examines the history of the discipline, problems associated with it, and contemporary movements.

Scaff, Lawrence A. (1984). "Weber before Weberian Sociology." British Journal of Sociology 35, no. 2 (June): 190-215.
Lawrence A. Scaff examines work by Max Weber that was written well before more popular works, such as his article titled "Objectivity" and The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber's relationship to Marx and Nietzsche and the differences between their theories are also explored.

Scarce, Rik. (1995). "Scholarly Ethics and Courtroom Antics: Where Researchers Stand in the Eyes of the Law." American Sociologist 26 (Spring): 87-112.
Rik Scarce was the first sociologist to be jailed for refusing to violate the American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics. At the time Scarce was jailed, he was a sociology PhD student whose data had been subject to subpoena. His response to the subpoena and his rationale for refusing to release his data are presented in this article.

Schneider, JoAnne. "Ethics, Confidentiality and Informed Consent: A Summary for Student Researchers." Retrieved from http://www.chss.iup.edu/jschneid/Ethics,%20Confidentiality%20and%20Informed%20Consent.htm.
This site is designed to provide a set of ethical guidelines for student researchers to follow. Discussions on issues such as the major points of ethics for sociologists and anthropologists, the meaning of "do no harm," the importance of informed consent, and the preservation of confidentiality are covered.

Shafir, Sharoni, and Donald Kennedy. (1998). "Research Misconduct: Media Exaggerate Results of Survey." Scientist 12, no. 13 (June 22): 0. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/yr1998/june/opin_980622.html.
Media reports based on a study in 1993 (J.P. Swazey, et al, American Scientist, 81: 542-553) emphasized the dire condition of research misconduct in U.S. institutions. The authors of this article examine the results from the American Scientist article, and consider whether the conclusions drawn by the media were an accurate portrayal. The role of the media in propagating stories that negatively and often falsely skew public opinion regarding academic integrity is discussed.

Shea, Christopher. (2000). "Don't Talk to the Humans: The Crackdown on Social Science Research." Lingua Franca 10, no. 6 (September): 26-34. Retrieved from http://mailer.fsu.edu/~njumonvi/irb-article.htm.
Christopher Shea discusses the "threats" posed by most social science research on human subjects, and the role of the IRB in the research process. Cases involving what have been seen as "overzealous" IRBs, like the one involving John Wilmoth, a demographer at the University of California at Berkeley, are also addressed.

Sieber, Joan E., Stuart Plattner, and Philip Rubin. (2002). "How (Not) to Regulate Social and Behavioral Research." Professional Ethics Report 15, no. 2 (Spring): 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/per/per29.htm.
The authors of this article explore interpretations of federal regulations by IRBs that often prove to be inappropriate when applied to social science research. Examples of restrictive interpretations on research involving linguists, economists, and political scientists are provided. Historical background regarding the development of the federal regulations, and the inherent flexibility in them that is ignored by some IRB offices, is presented.

Silverman, Robert J. (2001). "Research Misconduct: A Multiperspectival Approach." In Steneck, Nicholas and Mary Sheetz eds. Investigating Research Integrity: Proceedings of the First ORI Research Conference on Research Integrity. Retrieved from http://www.ori.dhhs.gov/html/publications/rcri.html.
Robert J. Silverman takes a look at scientific misconduct in the social sciences, and poses the question of whether researchers are being held to "norms" that are irrelevant to them. Issues surrounding communities of scholarship and scientific misconduct are also outlined.

Singer, Eleanor, and Felice J. Levine. (2003). "Protection of Human Subjects of Research: Recent Developments and Future Prospects for the Social Sciences." Public Opinion Quarterly 67: 148-164.
Singer and Levine discuss the history of the human subjects federal protections "system," and present cases that led up to this type of oversight, such as Tuskegee and the Nazi experiments. The authors also address the biomedical framework that was used in the formation of the regulations, and they outline ways the "system" could be modified to be more applicable to the social sciences.

Sokal, Alan D. (1997). "What the Social Text Affair Does and Does Not Prove." (April 8). Retrieved from http://www.physics.nyu.edu/faculty/sokal/noretta.html.
Alan Sokal, the physicist who published an article that was later deemed to be a "hoax" in the postmodern publication, the Social Text, takes a look at his actions, and discusses what they prove or disprove.

Swazey, Judith P., Melissa S. Anderson and Karen Seashore Lewis. (1993). "Ethical Problems in Academic Research." American Scientist 81 (November-December): 542-553.
Doctoral students representing the fields of chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology were surveyed to determine the prevalence of ethical misconduct in various academic disciplines. The authors examined three different categories that include: (1) misconduct involving "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing or reporting research"; (2) questionable research practices, such as keeping poor research records or permitting honorary authorship; and (3) "other misconduct" including behavior such as sexual harassment and violations of government regulations. The results of this survey and the meaning of these findings are discussed.

Thomas, Jim. (1996). "Introduction: A Debate About the Ethics of Fair Practices for Collecting Social Science Data in Cyberspace." Information Society 12: 107-117.
Cyberspace is a relatively uncharted research territory in terms of human subjects protections. More and more researchers are finding that the Internet is a frontier that can be advantageous to their investigations. Rules regarding ethical conduct designed to guide these individuals may be lacking. Thomas examines the "conventional" guidelines, and contemplates whether new social science guidelines are needed for cyberspace.

Thomas, Jim. (2001). "Antinomies of Net Ethics/Research. (June 9). Retrieved from http://venus.soci.niu.edu/~jthomas/ethics/sssieth.html.
Jim Thomas examines the role of education in the protection of human subjects, and explores ways compliance issues are being addressed, violations, and items that are reviewed by IRBs. Work that must be done to improve the process is also examined.

Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 (January): 135-150.
The possibility of collaborative efforts between the "hard" and "soft" sciences is explored in this article by Hebe Vessuri. Social science and society, politics and its role in scientific policy, and moral dilemmas facing social science are also presented.

Ziman, John. (1998). "Why Must Scientists Become More Ethically Sensitive than They Used to Be?" Science Magazine 282, no. 5395 (December 4): 1813-1814. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/282/5395/1813.
Ethics is a relatively new concern to those in the science arena, and according to John Ziman, it is one that was rarely a topic of public discussion more than fifty years ago. Who is to blame for the "media frenzy" that occurs any time a research integrity violation surfaces? Is this public forum merely another battle to be fought out in the "science wars?" In this essay on science and society, Ziman examines the interest in scientific ethics, and how the realm of science has changed over the years.

Zussman, Robert. (2000). "The Contributions of Sociology to Medical Ethics." Hastings
Center Report
30, no. 1 (January/February): 7-11.

Robert Zussman explores the differences between the social sciences and medical ethics, and discusses whether the two are incompatible. He examines the possibility of sociology improving the concept of medical ethics in a way that would "lend a bit of reality to the flights of fancy that sometimes characterize the more speculative versions of philosophical medical ethics."

Zussman, Robert. (1997). "Sociological Perspectives on Medical Ethics and Decision-Making." Annual Review of Sociology 23: 171-189.
The field of sociology has a lot of insight to offer to the discipline of medical ethics. Robert Zussman examines whether medical ethics has seriously considered the contributions that are available from sociology, and the role this collaboration may play in the field. The position of those in medical ethics, as well as those in sociology is discussed. Informed consent and its importance in research involving human subjects are topics that are covered in great detail in this article.

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Books

Addams, Jane. (2002). Democracy and Social Ethics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Democracy and Social Ethics was originally presented by Jane Addams as a series of twelve lectures, which were given at various academic institutions. She believed that "establishing rapport with her audience was critical to the integrity of her communication." No changes have been made to the informal speaking style that was included in Addams' presentation. Since this is Addams' earliest work on ethics, many topics that she is well-known for, such as feminism, pacifism and modern youth culture are missing in the discussions.

Blass, Thomas, ed. (2000). Obedience to Authority: Current Perspectives on the Milgram Paradigm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stanley Milgram conducted his obedience to authority experiments in the 1960s, and the influence of this research endeavor continues to be felt even today. The goal of this book is to "demonstrate the vibrancy of the obedience paradigm by presenting to readers a variety of its most important and stimulating contemporary uses and applications." In the first three chapters, the focus is on Stanley Milgram. The remaining chapters examine the role the obedience experiments have played in other cases, including the Stanford Prison Experiment.

Dalglish, Thomas Killin. (1976). Protecting Human Subjects in Social and Behavioral Research: Ethics, Law, and the DHEW Rules: A Critique. Berkeley, CA: Center for Research in Management Science, University of California, Berkeley.
This is the place to start for historical information on the development of oversight initiatives related to human subjects research. Even though this publication came out in 1976, it still proves to be a good source of information on the development of federal regulations effecting human subject research. The book is divided into four different categories, and they include: (1) a description of the problems of research using human subjects; (2) the ethical and legal framework for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) rules; (3) an analysis of the DHEW rules and the concepts of "risk," "benefit," and "informed consent"; and (4) the implications of the DHEW rules.

Frayn, Michael. (1998). Copenhagen. London: Methuen Drama.
Do scientists, specifically physicists, have the moral right to "work on the practical exploitation of atomic energy?" That is the issue examined in this play created by Michael Frayn. In this work, Frayn creates an encounter set in 1941 between the German physicist Werner Heisenberg and his Danish friend and colleague Niels Bohr. Their conversation, the ethical dilemmas faced by those involved in the creation and utilization of this deadly weapon, and the search for answers are scrutinized by the characters in this production.

Giddens, Anthony. (1971). Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anthony Giddens's goal was to accomplish two objectives with this book: (1) "to set out a precise, yet comprehensive, analysis of the sociological ideas of these three authors [Marx, Durkheim, and Weber]; and (2) examine some of the main points of divergence between Marx's characteristic views on the one hand, and those of the two later writers on the other."

Gouldner, Alvin. (1971). The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. New York: Avon Books. Quoted in Emile Durkheim. (1993). Ethics and the Sociology of Morals, trans. Robert T. Hall. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
This book presents the translated work of Emile Durkheim. Durkheim is considered to a major contributor to social theory and morality, and this English translation provides access to his views.

Hammersley, Martyn. (2000). Taking Sides in Social Research: Essays on Partisanship and Bias. London: Routledge.
Martyn Hammersley examines whether social science research can be bias free. He discusses the goal toward objective research, and presents data that rejects this position. This book is divided into six parts: (1) Taking sides in research: an assessment of the rationales for partisanship; (2) Between Marx and Weber: C. Wright Mills on the role of the social scientist; (3) Which side was Becker on? Questioning political and epistemological radicalism; (4) Against Gouldner: on the fallacy of objective partisanship; (5) Methodological purism: anatomy of a critique; and (6) Bias in social research.

Homan, Roger. (1991). The Ethics of Social Research. New York: Longman, Inc.
Roger Homan examines ethical issues affecting those involved in social science research. The medical ethics model, the notion of privacy, the principle of informed consent, the use of covert methods, and the ownership of data are merely a few of the topics covered in this publication. The problems of research ethics and the effects of ethics on subjects, researchers, and the profession are also presented.

Lee-Treweek, Geraldine, and Stephanie Linkogle, eds. (2000). Danger in the Field: Risk and Ethics in Social Research. London: Routledge.
Unanticipated and unexpected events often arise in the course of undertaking fieldwork. Geraldine Lee-Treweek and Stephanie Linkogle have put together this collection of essays that outlines some of the dangers many qualitative researchers face. Some of the discussion surrounds physical dangers while others deal with the more emotional and moral dilemmas that may be encountered. Actual researcher accounts are presented in this publication.

Merton, Robert K. (1977). The Sociology of Science: An Episodic Memoir. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Robert K. Merton, a man who began teaching sociology at Columbia University in 1941, examines the correlation between sociology and science, and the history of its development in the U.S. This "memoir" was originally part of a volume titled, The Sociology of Science in Europe, and Merton decided that the work was strong enough to stand alone. The result was The Sociology of Science: An Episodic Memoir.

Mitchell, Richard G., Jr. (1993). Secrecy and Fieldwork. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
This 63 page publication by Richard G. Mitchell, Jr. takes a look at the role of secrecy in everyday life, and how this translates in the world of scientific research. Some of the issues addressed include the myth of autonomy, opposition to covert research, and the researcher versus spy.

Mulkay, Michael J. (1991). Sociology of Science: A Sociological Pilgrimage. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Michael J. Mulkay has compiled 14 different papers that he has authored or co-authored to create Sociology of Science: A Sociological Pilgrimage. This publication is divided into four parts: (1) Questions of method; (2) Conventional analysis: revealing the social world of science; (3) Discourse analysis: showing how scientists construct their social worlds; and (4) New literary forms: exploring the many worlds of textuality.

Orlans, Harold. (1973). Contracting for Knowledge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.
Can bias be eliminated from social science? Can objectivity be obtained in the quest for knowledge and truth? The goal of this publication is to "assess the value and limitations of the knowledge yielded by applied social research," and Harold Orlans explores whether social science research is as valuable as many contend. Orlans has divided the book into four sections, and they include: (1) the professional community: political and ethical concerns; (2) knowledge for hire; (3) location and control of sponsored research; and (4) uses of social knowledge.

Punch, Maurice. (1986). The Politics and Ethics of Fieldwork. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
This publication is not a fieldwork "do's and don'ts" guide, but it does illustrate moral dilemmas that many researchers face in their field research. Maurice Punch addresses topics such as the politics of research, ethical considerations in fieldwork, the impact of sponsorship, and the realities of the field. Personal anecdotes are intertwined within the discussion.

Romm, Norma R. A. (2001). Accountability in Social Research: Issues and Debates. New York: Kluwer Academic.
Norma R. A. Romm takes a look at "acceptable research practices" and "proper" research in society. Topics presented in this publication include researcher accountability, survey research, ethnographic study of lives, and action research.

Sieber, Joan E., ed. (1982). The Ethics of Social Research: Surveys and Experiments. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Social scientists often face ethical dilemmas in their research, but they are not always well-equipped to deal with some of the issues that arise. The contributions to this publication by social scientists are designed to assist other social scientists in their work. Topics such as deception, vulnerable populations, confidentiality and survey research are discussed. Tips for handling the subpoena of data are also presented.

Turner, Stephen P., ed. (1993). Emile Durkheim: Sociologist and Moralist. London: Routledge.
A group of "distinguished experts" present an overview of some recent thoughts and views on the work of Emile Durkheim. The contributors to this publication, edited by Stephen P. Turner, provide insight into Durkheim's work that has rarely been made available in the English language.

Van den Hoonaard, Will C., ed. (2002). Walking the Tightrope: Ethical Issues for Qualitative Researchers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Will C. van den Hoonaard, who was a sociology professor at the University of New Brunswick at the time this book was published, has assembled a collection of essays that discuss some of the challenges researcher encounter when faced with ethics initiatives based on a biomedical model. Works included in this volume examine issues such as profession ethics, confidentiality, dilemmas in fieldwork, informed consent, and the university's definition of research values.

Vidich, Arthur J. and Joseph Bensman. (2000). Small Town in Mass Society: Class, Power and Religion in a Rural Community. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Arthur Vidich conducted his fieldwork on the town of "Springdale, New York" in the mid-1950s, and the results of his research were first published in 1958. This work has seen its share of controversy, but it continues to be discussed even today by many social scientists. The uproar surrounding this project stemmed from the use of thinly veiled pseudonyms that were used to disguise the townspeople who were profiled. This volume not only presents the original story of "Springdale," but it also includes the writings that sparked the controversy.

Ziman, J. M. (1984). An Introduction to Science Studies: The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
This work, presented by John Ziman, began as a series of lectures to students in physics, philosophy, and sociology courses at Bristol University. Discussions presented in this publication include such topics as the sociology of scientific knowledge, the economics of research, the politics of science, and the scientist in society.

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Created by Sharon Stoerger MLS, MBA
©November 16, 2003